*T. J. Vongkovit, Hansveer Singh, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

** 2024-04-08**

localized. We explore how quasiperiodic modulation renormalizes the Luttinger parameter characterizing this emergent Luttinger liquid, using the renormalization of transmission coefficients across a barrier as a proxy that remains valid for general quasiperiodic modulation. We find, unexpectedly, that quasiperiodic modulation weakens the effects of short-range interactions, but enhances those of long-range interactions. We support the former finding with matrix-product numerics. We also discuss how interactions affect the localization phase boundary.

*Catherine McCarthy, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

** 2024-02-28**

isotropic perturbations of strength $\lambda$. We identify an anomalously-long crossover time scale $t_\star \sim \lambda^{-\alpha}$ with $\alpha \approx 6$ in both cases. We discuss our results in terms of a kinetic theory of transport that characterizes the lifetimes of large solitons responsible for superdiffusion.

*Nitesh Chauhan, Christopher Caron, Jiawei Wang, Andrei Isichenko, Nishat Helaly, Kaikai Liu, Robert J. Niffenegger, Daniel J. Blumenthal*

** 2024-02-26**

and optical stabilization cavities for optical clock and qubit operations, constraining the size, weight, scalability, and portability of atomic systems. Chip-scale integration of ultra-low noise lasers and reference cavities operating directly at optical clock transitions and capable of qubit and clock operations will represent a major transformation in atom and trapped ion-based quantum technologies. However, this goal has remained elusive. Here we report the first demonstration of chip-scale optical clock and qubit operations on a trapped ion using a photonic integrated direct-drive visible wavelength Brillouin laser stabilized to an integrated 3-meter coil-resonator reference cavity and the optical clock transition of a $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ion trapped on a surface electrode chip. We also demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, trapped-ion spectroscopy and qubit operations such as Rabi oscillations and high fidelity (99%) qubit state preparation and measurement (SPAM) using direct drive integrated photonic technologies without bulk optic stabilization cavities or second harmonic generation. Our chip-scale stabilized Brillouin laser exhibits a 6 kHz linewidth with the 0.4 Hz quadrupole transition of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ and a self-consistent coherence time of 60 $\mu$s via Ramsey interferometry on the trapped ion qubit. Furthermore, we demonstrate the stability of the locked Brillouin laser to 5$\times10^{-13}/ \sqrt{\tau}$ at 1 second using dual optical clocks.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Ewan McCulloch, Romain Vasseur*

** 2024-01-10**

conventional metals. In this paper we point out a striking consequence of fluctuating relativistic hydrodynamics: the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transport is highly non-gaussian. We predict the exact asymptotic form of the FCS, which generalizes a result previously derived for certain interacting integrable systems. A consequence is that, starting from quasi-one dimensional nonequilibrium initial conditions, charge noise in the hydrodynamic regime is parametrically enhanced relative to that in conventional diffusive metals.

*Zihan Cheng, Rui Wen, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

** 2023-12-18**

quantum computing, as well as for the computational complexity of simulating the state using quantum or classical computers. In this work, we examine entropic measures of measurement-induced entanglement (MIE) and information (MII) for the ground-states of quantum many-body systems in one- and two- spatial dimensions. From numerical and analytic analysis of a variety of models encompassing critical points, quantum Hall states, string-net topological orders, and Fermi liquids, we identify universal features of the long-distance structure of MIE and MII that depend only on the underlying phase or critical universality class of the state. We argue that, whereas in $1d$ the leading contributions to long-range MIE and MII are universal, in $2d$, the existence of a teleportation transition for finite-depth circuits implies that trivial $2d$ states can exhibit long-range MIE, and the universal features lie in sub-leading corrections. We introduce modified MIE measures that directly extract these universal contributions. As a corollary, we show that the leading contributions to strange-correlators, used to numerically identify topological phases, are in fact non-universal in two or more dimensions, and explain how our modified constructions enable one to isolate universal components. We discuss the implications of these results for classical- and quantum- computational simulation of quantum materials.

*Charles Guinn, Samuel Stein, Esin Tureci, Guus Avis, Chenxu Liu, Stefan Krastanov, Andrew A. Houck, Ang Li*

** 2023-12-02**

qubits. One of the most promising codes on the superconducting qubit platform is the surface code, requiring a realistically attainable error threshold and the ability to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computing with local operations via lattice surgery and magic state injection. Surface code architectures easily generalize to single-chip planar layouts, however space and control hardware constraints point to limits on the number of qubits that can fit on one chip. Additionally, the planar routing on single-chip architectures leads to serialization of commuting gates and strain on classical decoding caused by large ancilla patches. A distributed multi-chip architecture utilizing the surface code can potentially solve these problems if one can optimize inter-chip gates, manage collisions in networking between chips, and minimize routing hardware costs. We propose QuIRC, a superconducting Quantum Interface Routing Card for Lattice Surgery between surface code modules inside of a single dilution refrigerator. QuIRC improves scaling by allowing connection of many modules, increases ancilla connectivity of surface code lattices, and offers improved transpilation of Pauli-based surface code circuits. QuIRC employs in-situ Entangled Pair (EP) generation protocols for communication. We explore potential topological layouts of QuIRC based on superconducting hardware fabrication constraints, and demonstrate reductions in ancilla patch size by up to 77.8%, and in layer transpilation size by 51.9% when compared to the single-chip case.

*Benjamin Doyon, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Frederik Møller, Jörg Schmiedmayer, Romain Vasseur*

** 2023-11-06**

developed to treat the dynamics of one-dimensional models: it combines ideas from integrability, hydrodynamics, and kinetic theory to come up with a quantitative theory of transport. GHD has successfully settled several longstanding questions about one-dimensional transport; it has also been leveraged to study dynamical questions beyond the transport of conserved quantities, and to systems that are not integrable. In this article we introduce the main ideas and predictions of GHD, survey some of the most recent theoretical extensions and experimental tests of the GHD framework, and discuss some open questions in transport that the GHD perspective might elucidate.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Andrew C. Potter*

** 2023-10-31**

coherence. Here, we report the experimental observation of evidence for an observable-sharpening measurement-induced phase transition in a chain of trapped ions in Quantinuum H1-1 system model quantum processor. This transition manifests as a sharp, concomitant change in both the quantum uncertainty of an observable and the amount of information an observer can (in principle) learn from the measurement record, upon increasing the strength of measurements. We leverage insights from statistical mechanical models and machine learning to design efficiently-computable algorithms to observe this transition (without non-scalable post-selection on measurement outcomes) and to mitigate the effects on errors in noisy hardware.

*Jonas F Karcher, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

**Phys. Rev. B 109, 064208 - Published 26 February 2024**

Surprisingly, the quasiperiodic version of the model supports an extended critical phase for some angles of modulation. We characterize this critical phase and the transitions between critical and insulating phases. For quasiperiodic potentials with two incommensurate wavelengths, the transitions we find are in a different universality class from the random transition. Upon adding more wavelengths they undergo a crossover to the uncorrelated random case. We expect our results to be relevant to the quantum Hall phases of twisted bilayer graphene or other Moir\'e systems with large unit cells.

*Abhishek Kumar, Kemal Aziz, Ahana Chakraborty, Andreas W. W. Ludwig, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, J. H. Pixley, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 109, 014303 (2024)**

boundary spectrum of this field theory, and consider a variety of boundary conditions. We apply this approach numerically to monitored Haar and Clifford circuits, and to the measurement-only Ising model where the boundary scaling dimensions can be derived analytically. Our transfer matrix approach provides a systematic numerical tool to study the spectrum of MIPTs.

*Gal Shkolnik, Aidan Zabalo, Romain Vasseur, David A. Huse, J. H. Pixley, Snir Gazit*

**Phys. Rev. B 108, 184204 (2023)**

4/3$. Via large-scale numerical simulations of random Clifford circuits interleaved with local projective measurements, we find that sufficiently large QP structural fluctuations destabilize the MIPT and induce a flow to a broad family of critical dynamical phase transitions of the infinite QP type that is governed by the wandering exponent, $\beta$. We numerically determine the associated critical properties, including the correlation length exponent consistent with saturating the Luck bound, and a universal activated dynamical scaling with activation exponent $\psi \cong \beta$, finding excellent agreement with the conclusions of real space renormalization group calculations.

*Sofia Gonzalez-Garcia, Shengqi Sang, Timothy H. Hsieh, Sergio Boixo, Guifre Vidal, Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur*

** 2023-07-20**

a computationally hard problem. Yet approximation schemes for computing properties of 2d PEPS are regularly used, and empirically seen to succeed, for a large subclass of (not too entangled) condensed matter ground states. Adopting the philosophy of random matrix theory, in this work we analyze the complexity of approximately contracting a 2d random PEPS by exploiting an analytic mapping to an effective replicated statistical mechanics model that permits a controlled analysis at large bond dimension. Through this statistical-mechanics lens, we argue that: i) although approximately sampling wave-function amplitudes of random PEPS faces a computational-complexity phase transition above a critical bond dimension, ii) one can generically efficiently estimate the norm and correlation functions for any finite bond dimension. These results are supported numerically for various bond-dimension regimes. It is an important open question whether the above results for random PEPS apply more generally also to PEPS representing physically relevant ground states

*Vaishnavi L. Addala, Shu Ge, Stefan Krastanov*

** 2023-07-12**

function well, especially on today's imperfect hardware, is still challenging. Here, we develop a simulation algorithm for distillation circuits with gate-simulation complexity of $\mathcal{O}(1)$ steps, providing for drastically faster modeling compared to $\mathcal{O}(n)$ Clifford simulators or $\mathcal{O}(2^n)$ wavefunction simulators over $n$ qubits. This new simulator made it possible to not only model but also optimize practically interesting purification circuits. It enabled us to use a simple discrete optimization algorithm to design purification circuits from $n$ raw Bell pairs to $k$ purified pairs and study the use of these circuits in the teleportation of logical qubits in second-generation quantum repeaters. The resulting purification circuits are the best-known purification circuits for finite-size noisy hardware and can be fine-tuned for specific hardware error models. Furthermore, we design purification circuits that shape the correlations of errors in the purified pairs such that the performance of the error-correcting code used in teleportation or other higher-level protocols is greatly improved. Our approach of optimizing multiple layers of the networking stack, both the low-level entanglement purification, and the forward error correction on top of it, are shown to be indispensable for the design of high-performance second-generation quantum repeaters.

*Kurt Jacobs, Stefan Krastanov, Mikkel Heuck, Dirk R. Englund*

** 2023-07-03**

approaches applicable to different regimes have yielded important insights: i) a semiclassical approach reveals that, for many-photon coherent fields, the contributions of independent emitters add independently allowing ensembles to produce strong optical nonlinearities via EIT; ii) a quantum analysis has shown that in the few-photon regime collective coupling effects prevent ensembles from inducing these strong nonlinearities. Rather surprisingly, experimental results with around twenty photons are in line with the semi-classical predictions. Theoretical analysis has been fragmented due to the difficulty of treating nonlinear many-body quantum systems. Here we are able to solve this problem by constructing a powerful theory of the generation of optical nonlinearities by single emitters and ensembles. The key to this construction is the application of perturbation theory to perturbations generated by subsystems. This theory reveals critical properties of ensembles that have long been obscure. The most remarkable of these is the discovery that quantum effects prevent ensembles generating single-photon nonlinearities only within the rotating-wave regime; outside this regime single-photon nonlinearities scale as the number of emitters. The theory we present here also provides an efficient way to calculate nonlinearities for arbitrary multi-level driving schemes, and we expect that it will prove a powerful foundation for further advances in this area.

*Julian F. Wienand, Simon Karch, Alexander Impertro, Christian Schweizer, Ewan McCulloch, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Monika Aidelsburger, Immanuel Bloch*

** 2023-06-20**

the hydrodynamics of fluctuations. We perform large-scale quantum simulations that monitor the full counting statistics of particle-number fluctuations in hard-core boson ladders, contrasting systems with ballistic and chaotic dynamics. We find excellent agreement between our results and MFT predictions, which allows us to accurately extract diffusion constants from fluctuation growth. Our results suggest that large-scale fluctuations of isolated quantum systems display emergent hydrodynamic behavior, expanding the applicability of MFT to the quantum regime.

*Kah Jen Wo, Guus Avis, Filip Rozpędek, Maria Flors Mor-Ruiz, Gregor Pieplow, Tim Schröder, Liang Jiang, Anders Søndberg Sørensen, Johannes Borregaard*

error correcting operations are kept to a minimum to allow for near-future implementations. To this end, we propose a one-way quantum repeater that targets both the loss and operational error rates in a communication channel in a resource-efficient manner using code concatenation. Specifically, we consider a tree-cluster code as an inner loss-tolerant code concatenated with an outer 5-qubit code for protection against Pauli errors. Adopting flag-based stabilizer measurements, we show that intercontinental distances of up to 10,000 km can be bridged with a minimal resource overhead by interspersing repeater nodes that each specializes in suppressing either loss or operational errors. Our work demonstrates how tailored error-correcting codes can significantly lower the experimental requirements for long-distance quantum communication.

*Hansveer Singh, Michael H. Kolodrubetz, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

** 2023-06-07**

a tunable dynamical exponent. We substantiate our prediction with numerical simulations and explain how deviations arise from finite time and finite size effects.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics Vol. 15:159-176 (2024)**

spin correlation function, suggest that spin transport is in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class. However, the full counting statistics of magnetization is manifestly incompatible with KPZ scaling. A simple two-mode hydrodynamic description, derivable from microscopic principles, captures both the KPZ scaling of the correlation function and the coarse features of the full counting statistics, but remains to be numerically validated. These results generalize to any integrable spin chain invariant under a continuous nonabelian symmetry, and are surprisingly robust against moderately strong integrability-breaking perturbations that respect the nonabelian symmetry.

*Rhine Samajdar, Ewan McCulloch, Vedika Khemani, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

** 2023-05-24**

FCS starting from number-indefinite initial states or in the presence of noisy dynamics. In addition, by mapping the FCS onto a single-body observable, it allows for stable numerical calculations of FCS using approximate tensor-network methods. We demonstrate the wide-ranging utility of this approach by computing the FCS of the transferred magnetization in a Floquet Heisenberg spin chain, as studied in a recent experiment with superconducting qubits, as well as the FCS of charge transfer in random circuits.

*Shayan Majidy, Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur, Nicole Yunger Halpern*

**Phys. Rev. B 108, 054307 (2023)**

nature, measuring qubit pairs allows for nontrivial entanglement scaling even in the measurement-only limit. We find a transition between a volume-law entangled phase and a critical phase whose diffusive purification dynamics emerge from the non-Abelian symmetry. Additionally, we numerically identify a "spin-sharpening transition." On one side is a phase in which the measurements can efficiently identify the system's total spin quantum number; on the other side is a phase in which measurements cannot.

*Filip Rozpędek, Kaushik P. Seshadreesan, Paul Polakos, Liang Jiang, Saikat Guha*

**Phys. Rev. Research 5, 043056 (2023)**

a two-way repeater architecture with multiplexing. The crucial feature of the GKP code that we make use of is the fact that GKP qubits easily admit deterministic two-qubit gates, hence allowing for multiplexing without the need for generating large cluster states as required in previous all-photonic architectures based on discrete-variable codes. Moreover, alleviating the need for such clique-clusters entails that we are no longer limited to extraction of at most one end-to-end entangled pair from a single protocol run. In fact, thanks to the availability of the analog information generated during the measurements of the GKP qubits, we can design better entanglement swapping procedures in which we connect links based on their estimated quality. This enables us to use all the multiplexed links so that large number of links from a single protocol run can contribute to the generation of the end-to-end entanglement. We find that our architecture allows for high-rate end-to-end entanglement generation and is resilient to imperfections arising from finite squeezing in the GKP state preparation and homodyne detection inefficiency. In particular we show that long-distance quantum communication over more than 1000 km is possible even with less than 13 dB of GKP squeezing. We also quantify the number of GKP qubits needed for the implementation of our scheme and find that for good hardware parameters our scheme requires around $10^3-10^4$ GKP qubits per repeater per protocol run.

*Kenneth Goodenough, Sébastian de Bone, Vaishnavi L. Addala, Stefan Krastanov, Sarah Jansen, Dion Gijswijt, David Elkouss*

** 2023-03-20**

bilocal Clifford operations, a single round of communication and a possible final local operation depending on the observed measurement outcomes. In the case of permutationally invariant depolarizing noise on the input states, we find a correspondence between these distillation protocols and graph codes. We leverage this correspondence to find provably optimal distillation protocols in this class for several tasks important for the quantum internet. This correspondence allows us to investigate use cases for so-called non-trivial measurement syndromes. Furthermore, we detail a recipe to construct the circuit used for the distillation protocol given a graph code. We use this to find circuits of short depth and small number of two-qubit gates. Additionally, we develop a black-box circuit optimization algorithm, and find that both approaches yield comparable circuits. Finally, we investigate the teleportation of encoded states and find protocols which jointly improve the rate and fidelities with respect to prior art.

*Ewan McCulloch, Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 131, 210402 (2023)**

Using an effective replica statistical mechanics model and a mapping onto an emergent classical stochastic process valid at large onsite Hilbert space dimension, we show that charge transfer fluctuations approach those of the symmetric exclusion process at long times, with subleading $t^{-1/2}$ quantum corrections. We discuss our results in the context of fluctuating hydrodynamics and macroscopic fluctuation theory of classical non-equilibrium systems, and check our predictions against direct matrix-product state calculations.

*Lorenzo Piroli, Yaodong Li, Romain Vasseur, Adam Nahum*

**Phys. Rev. B 107, 224303 (2023)**

(taken here to be a product state). In this work we show analytically that these transitions are generically distinct, with the quantum trajectories becoming disentangled before the absorbing state transition is reached, and we analyze their critical properties. We introduce a simple class of models where the measurements in each quantum trajectory define an Effective Tensor Network (ETN) -- a subgraph of the initial spacetime graph where nontrivial time evolution takes place. By analyzing the entanglement properties of the ETN, we show that the entanglement and absorbing-state transitions coincide only in the limit of infinite local Hilbert-space dimension. Focusing on a Clifford model which allows numerical simulations for large system sizes, we verify our predictions and study the finite-size crossover between the two transitions at large local Hilbert space dimension. We give evidence that the entanglement transition is governed by the same fixed point as in hybrid circuits without feedback.

*Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 131, 197102 (2023)**

fluctuations to deviate from standard KPZ predictions. We put forward a non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic theory consisting of two coupled stochastic modes: the local spin magnetization and its effective velocity. Our theory fully explains the emergence of anomalous spin dynamics in isotropic chains: it predicts KPZ scaling for the spin structure factor but with a symmetric, quasi-Gaussian, distribution of spin fluctuations. We substantiate our results using matrix-product states calculations.

*Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 247101 (2023)**

limit of small noise, we derive the exact expressions for the diffusion and structure factor matrices, and show that they generically have off-diagonal components in the presence of interactions. We find that the particle density structure factor is non-Gaussian and singular near the origin, with a return probability showing logarithmic deviations from diffusion.

*Guillaume Cecile, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Jacopo De Nardis*

**Phys. Rev. B 108, 075135 (2023)**

corrections and the local density approximation. Although helices are far from local equilibrium (so GHD need not apply a priori), our theory reproduces the experimentally observed relaxational dynamics of helices. In particular, our theory explains the existence of temporal regimes with apparent anomalous diffusion, as well as the asymmetry between positive and negative anisotropy regimes.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Rep. Prog. Phys. 86 036502 (2023)**

model using an intuitive quasiparticle picture that relies on the recently introduced framework of generalized hydrodynamics. We discuss how anomalous linear response properties emerge from hierarchies of quasiparticles both in integrable and near-integrable limits, with an emphasis on the role of hydrodynamic fluctuations. We also comment on recent developments including non-linear response, full-counting statistics and far-from-equilibrium transport. We provide an overview of recent numerical and experimental results on transport in XXZ spin chains.

*Fergus Barratt, Utkarsh Agrawal, Andrew C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 200602 (2022)**

eavesdropper has access to. For random unitary circuits with U(1) symmetry, we present an optimal classical classifier to reconstruct the global charge from local measurement outcomes only. We demonstrate the existence of phase transitions in the performance of this classifier in the thermodynamic limit. We also study numerically improved classifiers by including some knowledge about the unitary gates pattern.

*Aidan Zabalo, Justin H. Wilson, Michael J. Gullans, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, David A. Huse, J. H. Pixley*

**Phys. Rev. B 107, L220204 (2023)**

particular, at the critical measurement rate, we find that the entanglement of a subsystem of size $\ell$ scales as $S \sim \sqrt{\ell}$; moreover, the dynamical critical exponent $z = \infty$. The MIPT is flanked by Griffiths phases with continuously varying dynamical exponents. We argue for this infinite-randomness scenario on general grounds and present numerical evidence that it captures some features of the universal critical properties of MIPT using large-scale simulations of Clifford circuits. These findings demonstrate that the relevance and irrelevance of perturbations to the MIPT can naturally be interpreted using a powerful heuristic known as the Harris criterion.

*Jasvith Raj Basani, Mikkel Heuck, Dirk R. Englund, Stefan Krastanov*

** 2022-05-17**

as neurons. The weights among connected layers are encoded in the amplitude of controlled frequency modes that act as pumps. Interaction among these modes for information processing is enabled by non-linear optical processes. Both the matrix multiplication and element-wise activation functions are performed through coherent processes, enabling the direct representation of negative and complex numbers without the use of detectors or digital electronics. Via numerical simulations, we show that our design achieves a performance commensurate with present-day state-of-the-art computational networks on image-classification benchmarks. Our architecture is unique in providing a completely unitary, reversible mode of computation. Additionally, the computational speed increases with the power of the pumps to arbitrarily high rates, as long as the circuitry can sustain the higher optical power.

*Zhengyan Darius Shi, Vedika Khemani, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

**Phys. Rev. B 106, 144201 (2022)**

the characteristic scale for these fluctuations is $\sqrt{\ell}$; more generally they scale as $\ell^\gamma$. We discuss both positively correlated disorder ($1/2 < \gamma < 1$) and anticorrelated, or "hyperuniform," disorder ($\gamma < 1/2$). We argue that anticorrelations in the disorder are generally irrelevant at the MBL transition. Moreover, assuming the MBL transition is described by the recently developed renormalization-group scheme of Morningstar \emph{et al.} [Phys. Rev. B 102, 125134, (2020)], we argue that even positively correlated disorder leaves the critical theory unchanged, although it modifies certain properties of the many-body localized phase.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

**Phys. Rev. B 106, 094206 (2022)**

an avalanche that thermalizes the whole system. In this note, we explore the possibility of MBL in quasiperiodic systems in dimension $d>1$. We argue that (i) the MBL phase is stable at strong enough quasiperiodic modulations for $d = 2$, and (ii) the possibility of an avalanche strongly constrains the finite-size scaling behavior of the MBL transition. We present a suggestive construction that MBL is unstable for $d \geq 3$.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Alan Morningstar, Romain Vasseur, Vedika Khemani*

**Physical Review B 109, 024417 (2024)**

classes, as revealed by new classes of experimental observables accessible in synthetic quantum systems, which can, for instance, measure simultaneous site-resolved snapshots of all of the particles in a system. Specifically, we study the full counting statistics of spin transport, whose first moment is related to linear-response transport, but the higher moments go beyond. We present an analytic theory of the full counting statistics of spin transport in various integrable and non-integrable anisotropic one-dimensional spin models, including the XXZ spin chain. We find that spin transport, while diffusive on average, is governed by a distinct non-Gaussian dynamical universality class in the models considered. We consider a setup in which the left and right half of the chain are initially created at different magnetization densities, and consider the probability distribution of the magnetization transferred between the two half-chains. We derive a closed-form expression for the probability distribution of the magnetization transfer, in terms of random walks on the half-line. We show that this distribution strongly violates the large-deviation form expected for diffusive chaotic systems, and explain the physical origin of this violation. We discuss the crossovers that occur as the initial state is brought closer to global equilibrium. Our predictions can directly be tested in experiments using quantum gas microscopes or superconducting qubit arrays.

*Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 55 234005 (2022)**

to backscatter. We study the onset of thermalization and diffusive hydrodynamics in this model, compute perturbatively the diffusion constant of tracer particles, and comment on its relation to transport coefficients.

*Hamza Raniwala, Stefan Krastanov, Lisa Hackett, Matt Eichenfield, Dirk R. Englund, Matthew E. Trusheim*

** 2022-02-22**

and $\sim 10^2$, respectively). From finite-element modeling and master equation simulations, we estimate photon-to-spin quantum state transfer fidelities exceeding 0.97 based on separately demonstrated device parameters. We anticipate that this device will enable hybrid quantum architectures that leverage the advantages of both superconducting circuits and solid-state spins for information processing, memory, and networking.

*Hamza Raniwala, Stefan Krastanov, Matt Eichenfield, Dirk Englund*

** 2022-02-14**

By placing a Group IV vacancy in the concentrator we demonstrate exquisitely high spin-mechanical coupling rates approaching 40 MHz, while retaining high acousto-optical couplings. We theoretically show that such a device, used in an entanglement heralding scheme, can provide high-fidelity Bell pairs between quantum repeaters. Using the mechanical interface as an intermediary between the optical and spin subsystems, we are able to directly use telecom optics, bypassing the native wavelength requirements of the spin. As the spin is never optically excited or addressed, we do not suffer from spectral diffusion and can operate at higher temperatures (up to 40 K), limited only by thermal losses. We estimate that based on these metrics, optomechanical devices with high spin-mechanical coupling will be a useful architecture for near-term quantum repeaters.

*Fergus Barratt, Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, David A. Huse, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 120604 (2022)**

fluctuations. These include a charge-fuzzy phase in which charge information is rapidly scrambled leading to slowly decaying spatial fluctuations of charge in the steady state, and a charge-sharp phase in which measurements collapse quantum fluctuations of charge without destroying the volume-law entanglement of neutral degrees of freedom. By taking a continuous-time, weak-measurement limit, we construct a controlled replica field theory description of these phases and their intervening charge-sharpening transition in one spatial dimension. We find that the charge fuzzy phase is a critical phase with continuously evolving critical exponents that terminates in a modified Kosterlitz-Thouless transition to the short-range correlated charge-sharp phase. We numerically corroborate these scaling predictions also hold for discrete-time projective-measurement circuit models using large-scale matrix-product state simulations, and discuss generalizations to higher dimensions.

*Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur*

quantum circuits -- for which classical description of individual circuits is expected to be generically intractable. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the dynamics of quantum information in ensembles of random quantum circuits, through a stat-mech lens. We begin by reviewing discoveries of universal features of entanglement growth, operator spreading, thermalization, and chaos in unitary random quantum circuits, and their relation to stat-mech problems of random surface growth and noisy hydrodynamics. We then explore the dynamics of monitored random circuits, which can loosely be thought of as noisy dynamics arising from an environment monitoring the system, and exhibit new types of measurement-induced phases and criticality. Throughout, we attempt to give a pedagogical introduction to various technical methods, and to highlight emerging connections between concepts in stat-mech, quantum information and quantum communication theory.

*Nithin Raveendran, Narayanan Rengaswamy, Filip Rozpędek, Ankur Raina, Liang Jiang, Bane Vasić*

these GKP qubits. Under such a concatenation scheme, the analog information from the inner GKP error correction improves the noise threshold of the outer code. However, the surface code has vanishing rate and demands a lot of resources with growing distance. In this work, we concatenate the GKP code with generic quantum low-density parity-check (QLDPC) codes and demonstrate a natural way to exploit the GKP analog information in iterative decoding algorithms. We first show the noise thresholds for two lifted product QLDPC code families, and then show the improvements of noise thresholds when the iterative decoder - a hardware-friendly min-sum algorithm (MSA) - utilizes the GKP analog information. We also show that, when the GKP analog information is combined with a sequential update schedule for MSA, the scheme surpasses the well-known CSS Hamming bound for these code families. Furthermore, we observe that the GKP analog information helps the iterative decoder in escaping harmful trapping sets in the Tanner graph of the QLDPC code, thereby eliminating or significantly lowering the error floor of the logical error rate curves. Finally, we discuss new fundamental and practical questions that arise from this work on channel capacity under GKP analog information, and on improving decoder design and analysis.

*Yaodong Li, Romain Vasseur, Matthew P. A. Fisher, Andreas W. W. Ludwig*

** 2021-10-06**

the tensor factors ('Schur-Weyl duality'). For unitaries restricted to the smaller Clifford group, the set of commuting operators, the 'commutant', forming the new 'spin' degrees of freedom, will be larger. We use the recent full characterization of this commutant by Gross et al., Comm. Math. Phys. 385, 1325 (2021), to construct the Clifford statistical mechanics models for on-site Hilbert space dimensions which are powers of a prime number $p$. We show that the Boltzmann weights are invariant under a symmetry group involving orthogonal matrices with entries in the finite number field ${\bf F}_p$. This implies that the symmetry group, and consequently all universal properties of entanglement transitions in Clifford circuits and RTNs will in general depend on, and only on the prime $p$. We show that Clifford monitored circuits with on-site Hilbert space dimension $d=p^M$ are described by percolation in the limits $d \to \infty$ at (a) $p=$ fixed but $M\to \infty$, and at (b) $M= 1$ but $p \to \infty$. In the limit (a) we calculate the effective central charge, and in the limit (b) we derive the following universal minimal cut entanglement entropy $S_A =(\sqrt{3}/\pi)\ln p \ln L_A$ for $d=p$ large at the transition. We verify those predictions numerically, and present extensive numerical results for critical exponents at the transition in monitored Clifford circuits for prime number on-site Hilbert space dimension $d=p$ for a variety of different values of $p$, and find that they approach percolation values at large $p$.

*Stefan Krastanov, Kurt Jacobs, Gerald Gilbert, Dirk R. Englund, Mikkel Heuck*

**npj Quantum Information volume 8, Article number: 103 (2022)**

loads and unloads the photons from the cavity and dynamically alters their effective coupling to the TLE. The controls rely on nonlinear wave mixing between cavity modes enhanced by strong externally modulated electromagnetic fields or on AC Stark shifts of the TLE transition energy. We numerically investigate the effect of imperfections in terms of loss and dephasing of the TLE as well as control field miscalibration. Our results suggest that III-V quantum dots in GaAs membranes is a promising platform for photonic quantum information processing.

*Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware*

**Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 119 (34) e2202823119, (2022)**

finite anisotropy, one eventually recovers diffusion at late times, but with a diffusion constant independent of the strength of the integrability breaking perturbation. We provide numerical evidence for these findings, and explain them by adapting the generalized hydrodynamics framework to nearly integrable dynamics. Our results show that the diffusion constant of near-integrable interacting spin chains is generically not perturbative in the integrability breaking strength.

*Ashlesha Patil, Joshua I. Jacobson, Emily van Milligen, Don Towsley, Saikat Guha*

** 2021-08-20**

If repeaters can perform multi-qubit projective measurements in the GHZ basis that succeed with probability $q$, the rate does not change with distance in a certain $(p,q)$ region, but decays exponentially outside. This region where the distance independent rate occurs is the supercritical region of a new percolation problem. We extend this GHZ protocol to incorporate a time-multiplexing blocklength $k$, the number of time slots over which a repeater can mix-and-match successful links to perform fusion on. As $k$ increases, the supercritical region expands. For a given $(p,q)$, the entanglement rate initially increases with $k$, and once inside the supercritical region for a high enough $k$, it decays as $1/k$ GHZ states per time slot. When memory coherence time exponentially distributed with mean $\mu$ is incorporated, it is seen that increasing $k$ does not indefinitely increase the supercritical region; it has a hard $\mu$ dependent limit. Finally, we find that incorporating space-division multiplexing, i.e., running the above protocol independently in up to $d$ disconnected network regions, where $d$ is the network's node degree, one can go beyond the 1 GHZ state per time slot rate that the above randomized local link-state protocol cannot surpass. As $(p,q)$ increases, one can approach the ultimate min-cut entanglement generation capacity of $d$ GHZ states per slot.

*Hansveer Singh, Brayden Ware, Romain Vasseur, Aaron J. Friedman*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 230602 (2021)**

transfer matrix describing a classical Markov process. Our approach allows us to connect directly the Thouless time, $t_{\text{Th}}$, determined by the spectral form factor, to transport properties and linear response correlators. Using tensor network methods, we determine the dynamical exponent, $z$, for a number of constrained, conserving models. We find universality classes with diffusive, subdiffusive, quasilocalized, and localized dynamics, depending on the severity of the constraints. In particular, we show that quantum systems with 'Fredkin constraints' exhibit anomalous transport with dynamical exponent $z \simeq 8/3$.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Aidan Zabalo, Kun Chen, Justin H. Wilson, Andrew C. Potter, J. H. Pixley, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

exact numerics and a mapping onto a statistical mechanics model of constrained hard-core random walkers. We uncover a charge-sharpening transition that separates different scrambling phases with volume-law scaling of entanglement, distinguished by whether measurements can efficiently reveal the total charge of the system. We find that while R\'enyi entropies grow sub-ballistically as $\sqrt{t}$ in the absence of measurement, for even an infinitesimal rate of measurements, all average R\'enyi entropies grow ballistically with time $\sim t$. We study numerically the critical behavior of the charge-sharpening and entanglement transitions in U(1) circuits, and show that they exhibit emergent Lorentz invariance and can also be diagnosed using scalable local ancilla probes. Our statistical mechanical mapping technique readily generalizes to arbitrary Abelian groups, and offers a general framework for studying dissipatively-stabilized symmetry-breaking and topological orders.

*Philipp T. Dumitrescu, Justin Bohnet, John Gaebler, Aaron Hankin, David Hayes, Ajesh Kumar, Brian Neyenhuis, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

critical phenomena that exhibit topologically-robust methods to create, protect, and manipulate quantum entanglement that self-correct against large classes of errors. However, to date, experimental realizations have been confined to classical (non-entangled) symmetry-breaking orders. In this work, we demonstrate an emergent dynamical symmetry protected topological phase (EDSPT), in a quasiperiodically-driven array of ten $^{171}\text{Yb}^+$ hyperfine qubits in Honeywell's System Model H1 trapped-ion quantum processor. This phase exhibits edge qubits that are dynamically protected from control errors, cross-talk, and stray fields. Crucially, this edge protection relies purely on emergent dynamical symmetries that are absolutely stable to generic coherent perturbations. This property is special to quasiperiodically driven systems: as we demonstrate, the analogous edge states of a periodically driven qubit-array are vulnerable to symmetry-breaking errors and quickly decohere. Our work paves the way for implementation of more complex dynamical topological orders that would enable error-resilient techniques to manipulate quantum information.

*Raimel Medina, Romain Vasseur, Maksym Serbyn*

**Phys. Rev. B 104, 104205 (2021)**

onto the free energy cost of inserting a domain wall. In this paper, we study the possibility of entanglement transitions driven by physics beyond such statistical mechanics mappings. Motivated by recent applications of neural network-inspired variational Ans\"atze, we investigate under what conditions on the variational parameters these Ans\"atze can capture an entanglement transition. We study the entanglement scaling of short-range restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) quantum states with random phases. For uncorrelated random phases, we analytically demonstrate the absence of an entanglement transition and reveal subtle finite size effects in finite size numerical simulations. Introducing phases with correlations decaying as $1/r^\alpha$ in real space, we observe three regions with a different scaling of entanglement entropy depending on the exponent $\alpha$. We study the nature of the transition between these regions, finding numerical evidence for critical behavior. Our work establishes the presence of long-range correlated phases in RBM-based wave functions as a required ingredient for entanglement transitions.

*Aidan Zabalo, Michael J. Gullans, Justin H. Wilson, Romain Vasseur, Andreas W. W. Ludwig, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, David A. Huse, J. H. Pixley*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 050602 (2022)**

universality class. Here, we directly probe the properties of the conformal field theories governing these MIPTs using a numerical transfer-matrix method, which allows us to extract the effective central charge, as well as the first few low-lying scaling dimensions of operators at these critical points. Our results provide convincing evidence that the generic and Clifford MIPTs for qubits lie in different universality classes and that both are distinct from the percolation transition for qudits in the limit of large onsite Hilbert space dimension. For the generic case, we find strong evidence of multifractal scaling of correlation functions at the critical point, reflected in a continuous spectrum of scaling dimensions.

*Matheus Guedes de Andrade, Wenhan Dai, Saikat Guha, Don Towsley*

** 2021-06-17**

The protocol uses a quantum walk as a quantum control signal to perform distributed quantum operations. We consider a generalization of the discrete-time coined quantum walk model that accounts for the interaction between a quantum walker system in the network graph with quantum registers inside the network nodes. The protocol logically captures distributed quantum computing, abstracting hardware implementation and the transmission of quantum information through channels. Control signal transmission is mapped to the propagation of the walker system across the network, while interactions between the control layer and the quantum registers are embedded into the application of coin operators. We demonstrate how to use the quantum walker system to perform a distributed CNOT operation, which shows the universality of the protocol for distributed quantum computing. Furthermore, we apply the protocol to the task of entanglement distribution in a quantum network.

*Thirupathaiah Vasantam, Don Towsley*

** 2021-06-01**

probabilities, and each end node stores one qubit of the entanglement generated by the link. To create shared entanglements for a set of users, measurement operations are performed on qubits of link-level entanglements on a set of related links, and these operations are probabilistic in nature and are successful with certain probabilities. Requests arrive to the system seeking shared entanglements for different sets of users. Each request is for the creation of shared entanglements for a fixed set of users using link-level entanglements on a fixed set of links. Requests are processed according to First-Come-First-Served service discipline and unserved requests are stored in buffers. Once a request is selected for service, measurement operations are performed on qubits of link-level entanglements on related links to create a shared entanglement. For given set of request arrival rates and link-level entanglement generation rates, we obtain necessary conditions for the stability of queues of requests. In each time-slot, the scheduler has to schedule entanglement swapping operations for different sets of users to stabilize the network. Next, we propose a Max-Weight scheduling policy and show that this policy stabilizes the network for all feasible arrival rates. We also provide numerical results to support our analysis. The analysis of a single quantum switch that creates multipartite entanglements for different sets of users is a special case of our work.

*Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Filip Rozpędek, Zhibo Hou, Kang-Da Wu, Guo-Yong Xiang, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo*

uncertainty is indeed a fully intrinsic property of the quantum theory, or whether similarly to the classical domain lack of knowledge about specific parts of the physical system might be the source of this uncertainty. This question has been addressed in the previous literature where the authors argue that in the entropic formulation of the uncertainty principle that can be illustrated using the, so-called, guessing games, indeed such lack of information has a significant contribution to the arising quantum uncertainty. Here we investigate this issue experimentally by implementing the corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional guessing games. Our results confirm that within the guessing-game framework, the quantum uncertainty to a large extent relies on the fact that quantum information determining the key properties of the game is stored in the degrees of freedom that remain inaccessible to the guessing party. Moreover, we offer an experimentally compact method to construct the high-dimensional Fourier gate which is a major building block for various tasks in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum metrology.

*Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Brayden Ware, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 104, 104307 (2021)**

in many-body quantum systems. Here, we analyze operator spreading in generic 1D many-body quantum systems using a combination of matrix product operator (MPO) and analytical techniques, focusing on the operator {\em right-weight}. First, we show that while small bond dimension MPOs allow one to capture the exponentially-decaying tail of the operator front, in agreement with earlier results, they lead to significant quantitative and qualitative errors for the actual front -- defined by the maximum of the right-weight. We find that while the operator front broadens diffusively in both integrable and chaotic interacting spin chains, the precise shape and scaling of the height of the front in integrable systems is anomalous for all accessible times. We interpret these results using a quasiparticle picture. This provides a sharp, though rather subtle signature of many-body quantum chaos in the operator front.

*Alvise Bastianello, Andrea De Luca, Romain Vasseur*

we summarize recent efforts to take into account small integrability breaking terms, and describe the transition from GHD to standard hydrodynamics. We discuss the current state of the art, with emphasis on weakly inhomogeneous potentials, generalized Boltzmann equations and collision integrals, as well as bound-state recombination effects. We also identify important open questions for future works.

*Michele Fava, Sounak Biswas, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, S. A. Parameswaran*

**Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 118 (37) e2106945118, (2021)**

Lieb-Liniger gas. We give a prescription for computing finite-temperature Drude weights of arbitrary order, which is in excellent agreement with numerical evaluation of the third-order response of the XXZ spin chain. We identify intrinsically nonperturbative regimes of the nonlinear response of integrable systems.

*Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 057201 (2021)**

not perfectly integrable. We find, perturbatively, that $ \sigma(\omega) \sim \omega^{-1/3}$ for translation-invariant static perturbations that conserve energy, and $\sigma(\omega) \sim | \log \omega |$ for noisy perturbations. The (presumable) crossover to regular diffusion appears to lie beyond low-order perturbation theory. By contrast, integrability-breaking perturbations that break the nonabelian symmetry yield conventional diffusion. Numerical evidence supports the distinction between these two classes of perturbations.

*Hansveer Singh, Brayden Ware, Romain Vasseur, Sarang Gopalakrishnan*

**Phys. Rev. B 103, 220201 (2021)**

time-averaged operators drops discontinuously to zero across the transition; as we discuss, this implies that LIOMs abruptly become unstable at some critical localization length of order unity. We analyze the LIOMs using hydrodynamic projections and isolating the part of the operator that is associated with interactions. Equipped with this data we perform a finite-size scaling analysis of the quasiperiodic MBL transition. Our results suggest that the quasiperiodic MBL transition occurs at considerably stronger quasiperiodic modulations, and has a larger correlation-length critical exponent, than previous studies had found.

*Shiv Shankar, Don Towsley*

** 2020-12-31**

explore applications of multi-particle quantum walks on diffusing information across graphs. Our model is based on learning the operators that govern the dynamics of quantum random walkers on graphs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on classification and regression tasks.

*Stefan Krastanov, Hamza Raniwala, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Kurt Jacobs, Marko Lončar, Matthew J. Reagor, Dirk R. Englund*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 040503 (2021)**

via heralding end-to-end entanglement with one detected photon and teleportation. In contrast to cascaded direct transduction, our scheme absorbs the low optical-microwave coupling efficiency into the heralding step, thus breaking the rate-fidelity trade-off. Moreover, this technique unifies and simplifies entanglement generation between superconducting devices and other physical modalities in quantum networks.

*Filip Rozpędek, Kyungjoo Noh, Qian Xu, Saikat Guha, Liang Jiang*

**npj Quantum Inf. 7, 102 (2021)**

bosonic mode. On the second level we use a small discrete-variable code. Such an architecture has two important features. Firstly, errors on each of the two levels are corrected in repeaters of two different types. This enables for achieving performance needed in practical scenarios with a reduced cost with respect to an architecture for which all repeaters are the same. Secondly, the use of continuous-variable GKP code on the lower level generates additional analog information which enhances the error-correcting capabilities of the second-level code such that long-distance communication becomes possible with encodings consisting of only four or seven optical modes.

*Michelle Victora, Stefan Krastanov, Alexander Sanchez de la Cerda, Steven Willis, Prineha Narang*

** 2020-11-23**

and, in particular, we explore the interplay between the bandwidth of a quantum channels and the choice of purification protocol. Finally, we demonstrate multi-path routing on various network topologies with resource constraints, in an effort to inform future design choices for quantum network configurations. Our work optimizes both the choice of path over the quantum network and the choice of purification schemes used between nodes. We consider not only pair-production rate, but optimize over the fidelity of the delivered entangled state. We introduce effective heuristics enabling fast path-finding algorithms for maximizing entanglement shared between two nodes on a quantum network, with performance comparable to that of a computationally-expensive brute-force path search.

*Stefan Krastanov, Alexander Sanchez de la Cerda, Prineha Narang*

**Phys. Rev. Research 3, 033164 (2021)**

pairs and more general multipartite entangled states, is mostly overcome in the presence of perfect local quantum hardware with unconstrained qubit register sizes, devising optimal purification strategies for finite-size realistic noisy hardware has remained elusive. Here we depart from the typical purification paradigm for multipartite states explored in the last twenty years. We present cases where the hardware limitations are taken into account, and surprisingly find that smaller `sacrificial' states, like Bell pairs, can be more useful in the purification of multipartite states than additional copies of these same states. This drastically simplifies the requirements and presents a fundamentally new pathway to leverage near term networked quantum hardware.

*Tim Coopmans, Robert Knegjens, Axel Dahlberg, David Maier, Loek Nijsten, Julio de Oliveira Filho, Martijn Papendrecht, Julian Rabbie, Filip Rozpędek, Matthew Skrzypczyk, Leon Wubben, Walter de Jong, Damian Podareanu, Ariana Torres-Knoop, David Elkouss, Stephanie Wehner*

Simulator for QUantum Information using Discrete events, a discrete-event based platform for simulating all aspects of quantum networks and modular quantum computing systems, ranging from the physical layer and its control plane up to the application level. We study several use cases to showcase NetSquid's power, including detailed physical layer simulations of repeater chains based on nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond as well as atomic ensembles. We also study the control plane of a quantum switch beyond its analytically known regime, and showcase NetSquid's ability to investigate large networks by simulating entanglement distribution over a chain of up to one thousand nodes.

*Brayden Ware, Dmitry Abanin, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 103, 094203 (2021)**

methods predict a partially localized, non-ergodic regime known as a quantum critical glass (a critical variant of MBL). This regime features a tree-like hierarchy of integrals of motion and symmetric eigenstates with entanglement entropy that scales as a logarithmically enhanced area law. We argue that such tentative non-ergodic states are perturbatively unstable using an analytic computation of the scaling of off-diagonal matrix elements and accessible level spacing of local perturbations. Our results indicate that strongly disordered chains with non-Abelian symmetry display either spontaneous symmetry breaking or ergodic thermal behavior at long times. We identify the relevant length and time scales for thermalization: even if such chains eventually thermalize, they can exhibit non-ergodic dynamics up to parametrically long time scales with a non-analytic dependence on disorder strength.

*Michael J. Gullans, Stefan Krastanov, David A. Huse, Liang Jiang, Steven T. Flammia*

**Phys. Rev. X 11, 031066 (2021)**

we find strong evidence that a depth $O(\log N)$ random circuit is necessary and sufficient to converge (with high probability) to zero failure probability for any finite amount below the optimal erasure threshold, set by the channel capacity, for any $D$. Previous results on random circuits have only shown that $O(N^{1/D})$ depth suffices or that $O(\log^3 N)$ depth suffices for all-to-all connectivity ($D \to \infty$). We then study the critical behavior of the erasure threshold in the so-called moderate deviation limit, where both the failure probability and the distance to the optimal threshold converge to zero with $N$. We find that the requisite depth scales like $O(\log N)$ only for dimensions $D \ge 2$, and that random circuits require $O(\sqrt{N})$ depth for $D=1$. Finally, we introduce an "expurgation" algorithm that uses quantum measurements to remove logical operators that cause the code to fail by turning them into additional stabilizers or gauge operators. With such targeted measurements, we can achieve sub-logarithmic depth in $D\ge 2$ below capacity without increasing the maximum weight of the check operators. We find that for any rate beneath the capacity, high-performing codes with thousands of logical qubits are achievable with depth 4-8 expurgated random circuits in $D=2$ dimensions. These results indicate that finite-rate quantum codes are practically relevant for near-term devices and may significantly reduce the resource requirements to achieve fault tolerance for near-term applications.

*Alex Fischer, Don Towsley*

** 2020-09-22**

prove upper bounds for our approach on the number of EPR pairs consumed, number of timesteps taken, and amount of classical communication required, all of which are equal to or better than that of prior work. We also reduce the problem of minimizing the number of timesteps taken to distribute a graph state using our approach to a network flow problem having polynomial time complexity.

*Enej Ilievski, Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware*

**Phys. Rev. X 11, 031023 (2021)**

global non-abelian simple Lie group $G$, we find that finite-temperature transport of Noether charges associated with symmetry $G$ in thermal states that are invariant under $G$ is universally superdiffusive and characterized by dynamical exponent $z = 3/2$. This conclusion holds regardless of the Lie algebra symmetry, local degrees of freedom (on-site representations), Lorentz invariance, or particular realization of microscopic interactions: we accordingly dub it as superuniversal. The anomalous transport behavior is attributed to long-lived giant quasiparticles dressed by thermal fluctuations. We provide an algebraic viewpoint on the corresponding dressing transformation and elucidate formal connections to fusion identities amongst the quantum-group characters. We identify giant quasiparticles with nonlinear soliton modes of classical field theories that describe low-energy excitations above ferromagnetic vacua. Our analysis of these field theories also provides a complete classification of the low-energy (i.e., Goldstone-mode) spectra of quantum isotropic ferromagnetic chains.

*Stefan Krastanov, Kade Head-Marsden, Sisi Zhou, Steven T. Flammia, Liang Jiang, Prineha Narang*

** 2020-09-08**

system. To circumvent this limitation, we design learning architectures that explicitly encode physical constraints like the properties of completely-positive trace-preserving maps in a differential form. This method preserves the versatility of the machine learning approach without sacrificing the efficiency and fidelity of traditional parameter estimation methods. Our approach provides the physical interpretability that machine learning and opaque superoperators lack. Moreover, it is aware of the underlying continuous dynamics typically disregarded by superoperator-based tomography. This paradigm paves the way to noise-aware optimal quantum control and opens a path to exploiting the bath as a control and error mitigation resource.

*Aaron J. Friedman, Brayden Ware, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

**Phys. Rev. B 105, 115117 (2022)**

edge states are protected purely by emergent dynamical symmetries. We explore the dynamical signatures of this Emergent Dynamical Symmetry-Protected Topological (EDSPT) order through exact numerics, time evolving block decimation, and analytic high-frequency expansion, finding evidence that the EDSPT is a stable dynamical phase protected by bulk many-body localization up to (at least) stretched-exponentially long time scales, and possibly beyond. We argue that EDSPTs are special to the quasiperiodically driven setting, and cannot arise in Floquet systems. Moreover, we find evidence of a new type of boundary criticality, in which the edge spin dynamics transition from quasiperiodic to chaotic, leading to bulk thermalization.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 265702 (2020)**

that the critical behavior is largely independent of $q$, and is controlled by an infinite-quasiperiodicity fixed point. The correlation length exponent is found to be $\nu=1$, saturating a modified version of the Harris-Luck criterion.

*Byungmin Kang, S. A. Parameswaran, Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur, Snir Gazit*

**Phys. Rev. B 102, 224204 (2020)**

mutual statistics with the condensed subset and hence become confined at the anyon condensation transition. Using a combination of microscopically exact duality transformations and asymptotically exact real-space renormalization group techniques applied to these two-dimensional disordered gauge theories, we argue that the resulting critical scaling behavior is `superuniversal' across a wide range of such condensation transitions, and is controlled by the same infinite-randomness fixed point as that of the 2D random transverse-field Ising model. We validate this claim using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations that allow us to extract zero-temperature critical exponents and correlation functions in (2+1)D disordered interacting systems. We discuss generalizations of these results to a large class of ground-state and excited-state topological transitions in systems with intrinsic topological order as well as those where topological order is either protected or enriched by global symmetries. When the underlying topological order and the symmetry group are Abelian, our results provide prototypes for topological phase transitions between distinct many-body localized phases.

*Carlos M. Duque, Hong-Ye Hu, Yi-Zhuang You, Vedika Khemani, Ruben Verresen, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 103, 100207 (2021)**

such symmetry-enriched random quantum spin chains. We uncover a new class of symmetry-enriched infinite randomness fixed points: while local bulk properties are indistinguishable from conventional random singlet phases, nonlocal observables and boundary critical behavior are controlled by a different renormalization group fixed point. We also illustrate how such new quantum critical points emerge naturally in Floquet systems.

*Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Brayden Ware, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 103, 060302 (2021)**

even in strongly interacting systems. This approximation reproduces the crossover from generalized to conventional hydrodynamics in interacting one-dimensional Bose gases with integrability-breaking perturbations, both with and without momentum conservation. It also predicts the hydrodynamics of chaotic quantum spin chains, in good agreement with matrix product operator calculations.

*Michele Fava, Brayden Ware, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, S. A. Parameswaran*

**Phys. Rev. B 102, 115121 (2020)**

between distinct dynamical regimes. We identify an intermediate-temperature regime analogous to the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid, where spin degrees of freedom are hot but charge degrees of freedom are at low temperature. We demonstrate that the spin Drude weight exhibits sharp features at the crossover between this regime and the low-temperature Luttinger liquid regime, that are absent in the charge and energy response, and rationalize this behavior in terms of the properties of Bethe ansatz quasiparticles. We then turn to the dynamics along special lines in the phase diagram corresponding to half-filling and/or zero magnetization where on general grounds we anticipate that the transport is sub-ballistic but superdiffusive. We provide analytical and numerical evidence for Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) dynamical scaling (with length and time scales related via $x\sim t^{2/3}$) along both lines and at the $SO(4)$-symmetric point where they intersect. Our results suggest that both spin-coherence crossovers and KPZ scaling may be accessed in near-term experiments with optical lattice Hubbard emulators.

*Kade Head-Marsden, Stefan Krastanov, David A. Mazziotti, Prineha Narang*

**Phys. Rev. Research 3, 013182 (2021)**

inherent challenges of mapping non-unitary evolution into the framework of unitary gates. Evolving an open system unitarily necessitates dilation into a new effective system to incorporate critical environmental degrees of freedom. In this context, we present and validate a new quantum algorithm to treat non-Markovian dynamics in OQSs built on the Ensemble of Lindblad's Trajectories approach, invoking the Sz.-Nagy dilation theorem. Here we demonstrate our algorithm on the Jaynes-Cummings model in the strong coupling and detuned regimes, relevant in quantum optics and driven quantum systems studies. This algorithm, a key step towards generalized modeling of non-Markovian dynamics on a noisy-quantum device, captures a broad class of dynamics and opens up a new direction in OQS problems.

*Thomas Fösel, Stefan Krastanov, Florian Marquardt, Liang Jiang*

** 2020-04-29**

that this is a universal gate set, but a central question remained open so far: how can a given target operation be realized efficiently with a sequence of these operations. In this work, we present a practical scheme to address this problem. It involves a hierarchical strategy to insert new gates into a sequence, followed by a co-optimization of the control parameters, which generates short high-fidelity sequences. For a broad range of experimentally relevant applications, we find that they can be implemented with 3 to 4 SNAP gates, compared to up to 50 with previously known techniques.

*Jacopo De Nardis, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Enej Ilievski, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 070601 (2020)**

the results agree well with density-matrix renormalization group simulations. We establish a rigorous quantum-classical correspondence between the "giant quasiparticles" that govern superdiffusion and solitons in the classical continuous Landau-Lifshitz ferromagnet. We conclude that KPZ universality has the same origin in classical and quantum integrable isotropic magnets: a finite-temperature gas of low-energy classical solitons.

*Bo Jiang, Philippe Nain, Don Towsley*

** 2020-03-11**

can receive covertly, i.e. without being detected by Willie? In the case where both Willie and Alice jobs have exponential service times with respective rates $\mu_1$ and $\mu_2$, we demonstrate a phase-transition when Alice adopts the strategy of inserting a single job probabilistically when the server idles : over $n$ busy periods, she can achieve a covert throughput, measured by the expected number of jobs covertly inserted, of $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n})$ when $\mu_1 < 2\mu_2$, $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n/\log n})$ when $\mu_1 = 2\mu_2$, and $\mathcal{O}(n^{\mu_2/\mu_1})$ when $\mu_1 > 2\mu_2$. When both Willie and Alice jobs have general service times we establish an upper bound for the number of jobs Alice can execute covertly. This bound is related to the Fisher information. More general insertion policies are also discussed.

*Javier Lopez-Piqueres, Brayden Ware, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 102, 064202 (2020)**

a function of bond dimension, we find a phase transition separating area-law from logarithmic scaling of the entanglement entropy. Using a mapping onto a replica statistical mechanics model defined on a Cayley tree and the cavity method, we analyze the scaling properties of such transitions. Our approach provides a tractable, mean-field-like example of an entanglement transition. We verify our predictions numerically by computing directly the entanglement of random tree tensor network states.

*Gláucia Murta, Filip Rozpędek, Jérémy Ribeiro, David Elkouss, Stephanie Wehner*

**Phys. Rev. A 101, 062321 (2020)**

distillation and show that it can be advantageous to use the basis with higher quantum bit error rate for the key generation. We then discuss the relation between advantage distillation and entanglement distillation protocols. We show that applying advantage distillation to a string of bits formed by the outcomes of measurements in the basis with higher quantum bit error rate is closely connected to the two-to-one entanglement distillation protocol DEJMPS. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for implementations of quantum key distribution.

*Stefan Krastanov, Mikkel Heuck, Jeffrey H. Shapiro, Prineha Narang, Dirk R. Englund, Kurt Jacobs*

**Nature Communications volume 12, Article number: 191 (2021)**

information processing at room temperature. We introduce a paradigm for room-temperature photonic quantum logic that significantly simplifies the realization of various quantum circuits, and in particular, of error correction. It uses only the strongest available bulk nonlinearity, namely the $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear susceptibility. The key element is a three-mode resonator that implements programmable bosonic quantum logic gates. We show that just two of these elements suffice for a complete, compact error-correction circuit on a bosonic code, without the need for measurement or feed-forward control. An extrapolation of current progress in nonlinear optical materials and photonic circuits indicates that such circuitry should be achievable within the next decade.

*Robert J. Niffenegger, Jules Stuart, Cheryl Sorace-Agaskar, Dave Kharas, Suraj Bramhavar, Colin D. Bruzewicz, William Loh, Ryan T. Maxson, Robert McConnell, David Reens, Gavin N. West, Jeremy M. Sage, John Chiaverini*

portability and scalability. Here we demonstrate a surface-electrode ion-trap chip using integrated waveguides and grating couplers, which delivers all the wavelengths of light required for ionization, cooling, coherent operations, and quantum-state preparation and detection of Sr+ qubits. Laser light from violet to infrared is coupled onto the chip via an optical-fiber array, creating an inherently stable optical path, which we use to demonstrate qubit coherence that is resilient to platform vibrations. This demonstration of CMOS-compatible integrated-photonic surface-trap fabrication, robust packaging, and enhanced qubit coherence is a key advance in the development of portable trapped-ion quantum sensors and clocks, providing a way toward the complete, individual control of larger numbers of ions in quantum information processing systems.

*Aaron J. Friedman, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 101, 180302 (2020)**

and general diffusion equation for these. The diffusion constant depends on the matrix elements of the integrability-breaking perturbation; for a certain class of integrability-breaking perturbations, including long-range interactions, the diffusion constant can be expressed entirely in terms of generalized hydrodynamic data.

*D. A. Abanin, J. H. Bardarson, G. De Tomasi, S. Gopalakrishnan, V. Khemani, S. A. Parameswaran, F. Pollmann, A. C. Potter, M. Serbyn, R. Vasseur*

**Annals of Physics 427, 168415 (2021)**

by the strong finite-size effects observed in nearly all numerical studies of many-body localization. This severely impacts their utility in probing the transition and the localized phase. In light of this analysis, we argue that a recent study [\v{S}untajs et al., arXiv:1905.06345] of the behavior of the Thouless energy and level repulsion in disordered spin chains likely reaches misleading conclusions, in particular as to the absence of MBL as a true phase of matter.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware*

**Phys. Rev. B 101, 224415 (2020)**

generic irrational values of $\lambda$. Within the framework of generalized hydrodynamics, we show that in the high-temperature limit the low-frequency conductivity at a generic anisotropy scales as $\sigma(\omega) \sim 1/\sqrt{\omega}$; anomalous response occurs because quasiparticles undergo L\'evy flights. For rational values of $\lambda$, the divergence is cut off at low frequencies and the corrections to ballistic spin transport are diffusive. We also use our approach to recover that at the isotropic point $\Delta=1$, spin transport is superdiffusive with $\sigma(\omega) \sim \omega^{-1/3}$. We support our results with extensive numerical studies using matrix-product operator methods.

*Chao-Ming Jian, Yi-Zhuang You, Romain Vasseur, Andreas W. W. Ludwig*

**Phys. Rev. B 101, 104302 (2020)**

be interpreted as an ordering transition in the statistical mechanics model. We derive the general scaling properties of the entanglement entropies and mutual information near the transition using conformal invariance. We analyze in detail the limit of infinite on-site Hilbert space dimension in which the statistical mechanics model maps onto percolation. In particular, we compute the exact value of the universal coefficient of the logarithm of subsystem size in the $n$th R\'enyi entropies for $n \geq 1$ in this limit using relatively recent results for conformal field theory describing the critical theory of 2D percolation, and we discuss how to access the generic transition at finite on-site Hilbert space dimension from this limit, which is in a universality class different from 2D percolation. We also comment on the relation to the entanglement transition in Random Tensor Networks, studied previously in Ref. 1.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Nature Communication 11, 2225 (2020)**

wide class of spin chains, generic quasiperiodic modulations flow to discrete sequences under a real-space renormalization group transformation. These discrete sequences are therefore fixed points of a \emph{functional} renormalization group. This observation allows for an asymptotically exact treatment of the critical points. We use this approach to analyze the quasiperiodic Heisenberg, Ising, and Potts spin chains, as well as a phenomenological model for the quasiperiodic many-body localization transition.

*Kaushik Chakraborty, Filip Rozpedek, Axel Dahlberg, Stephanie Wehner*

** 2019-07-26**

is produced continuously in the background. This can in principle allows the rapid creation of entanglement between more distant nodes using the already pre-generated entanglement pairs in the network. The second is an on-demand model, where entanglement production does not commence before a request is made. Our objective is to find protocols, that minimise the latency of the network to serve a request to create entanglement between two distant nodes in the network. We propose three routing algorithms and analytically show that as expected when there is only a single request in the network, then employing them on the continuous model yields a lower latency than on the on-demand one. We study the performance of the routing algorithms in a ring, grid, and recursively generated network topologies. We also give an analytical upper bound on the number of entanglement swap operations the nodes need to perform for routing entangled links between a source and a destination yielding a lower bound on the end to end fidelity of the shared entangled state. We proceed to study the case of multiple concurrent requests and show that in some of the scenarios the on-demand model can outperform the continuous one. Using numerical simulations on ring and grid networks we also study the behaviour of the latency of all the routing algorithms. We observe that the proposed routing algorithms behave far better than the existing classical greedy routing algorithm. The simulations also help to understand the advantages and disadvantages of different types of continuous models for different types of demands.

*Aaron J. Friedman, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 170603 (2019)**

form that allows for an exact solution: essentially, the quasiparticles behave like interacting hard rods. The generalized thermodynamics and hydrodynamics of this model follow directly. Although the model is interacting, its unusually simple structure allows us to construct operators that spread with no butterfly effect; this construction does not seem to be possible in other interacting integrable systems. This model illustrates the existence a new class of exactly solvable, interacting quantum systems specific to the Floquet setting.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur, Brayden Ware*

**PNAS 116 (33)16250-16255 (2019)**

states (`strings') of various sizes. Although short strings move ballistically, long strings move primarily diffusively as a result of their collisions with short strings. The interplay between these effects gives rise to anomalous power-law decay of the spin structure factor, with continuously varying exponents, at any fixed separation in the late-time limit. We elucidate the crossover to diffusion (in the gapped phase) and to superdiffusion (at the isotropic point) in the half-filling limit. We verify our results via extensive matrix product operator calculations.

*Thomas Ndousse-Fetter, Nicholas Peters, Warren Grice, Prem Kumar, Tom Chapuran, Saikat Guha, Scott Hamilton, Inder Monga, Ray Newell, Andrei Nomerotski, Don Towsley, Ben Yoo*

** 2019-03-27**

will evolve into a quantum internet.

*Axel Dahlberg, Matthew Skrzypczyk, Tim Coopmans, Leon Wubben, Filip Rozpędek, Matteo Pompili, Arian Stolk, Przemysław Pawełczak, Robert Knegjens, Julio de Oliveira Filho, Ronald Hanson, Stephanie Wehner*

**SIGCOMM '19 Proceedings of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication (2019) 159-173**

layer protocols that turn ad-hoc physics experiments producing heralded entanglement between quantum processors into a well-defined and robust service. This lays the groundwork for designing and implementing scalable control and application protocols in platform-independent software. To design our protocol, we identify use cases, as well as fundamental and technological design considerations of quantum network hardware, illustrated by considering the state-of-the-art quantum processor platform available to us (Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond). Using a purpose built discrete-event simulator for quantum networks, we examine the robustness and performance of our protocol using extensive simulations on a super-computing cluster. We perform a full implementation of our protocol, where we successfully validate the physical simulation model against data gathered from the NV hardware. We first observe that our protocol is robust even in a regime of exaggerated losses of classical control messages with only little impact on the performance of the system.We proceed to study the performance of our protocols for 169 distinct simulation scenarios, including tradeoffs between traditional performance metrics such as throughput and the quality of entanglement. Finally, we initiate the study of quantum network scheduling strategies to optimize protocol performance for different use cases.

*Gayane Vardoyan, Saikat Guha, Philippe Nain, Don Towsley*

**IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering 2021**

to use a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC) to model such systems, we quickly encounter practical constraints of using this technique and switch to using continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs). Using CTMCs allows us to obtain a number of analytic results for systems in which the links are homogeneous or heterogeneous and for switches that have infinite or finite buffer sizes. In addition, we can model the effects of decoherence of quantum states fairly easily using CTMCs. We also compare the results we obtain from the DTMC against the CTMC in the case of homogeneous links and infinite buffer, and learn that the CTMC is a reasonable approximation of the DTMC. From numerical observations, we discover that decoherence has little effect on capacity and expected number of stored qubits for homogeneous systems. For heterogeneous systems, especially those operating close to stability constraints, buffer size and decoherence can have significant effects on performance metrics. We also learn that in general, increasing the buffer size from one to two qubits per link is advantageous to most systems, while increasing the buffer size further yields diminishing returns.

*Utkarsh Agrawal, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 99, 174203 (2019)**

disorder, and use it to study non-equilibrium energy and spin transport. We show that diffusive corrections to the ballistic propagation of quasiparticles can arise even in noninteracting settings, in sharp contrast with clean integrable systems. This implies that operator fronts broaden diffusively in random integrable systems. By tuning parameters in the disorder distribution, one can drive this model through an unusual phase transition, between a phase where all wavefunctions are delocalized and a phase in which low-energy wavefunctions are quasi-localized (in a sense we specify). Both phases have ballistic transport; however, in the quasi-localized phase, local autocorrelation functions decay with an anomalous power law, and the density of states diverges at low energy.

*Aaron J Friedman, Romain Vasseur, Austen Lamacraft, S. A. Parameswaran*

**Phys. Rev. B 100, 060301 (2019)**

infinitesimal. Using the renormalization group, we determine how the effective localization length depends on the dissipation. We show that {a similar problem can emerge in} the strong-coupling limit of a mobile impurity moving in a periodic lattice and immersed in a one-dimensional quantum gas.

*Stefan Krastanov, Sisi Zhou, Steven T. Flammia, Liang Jiang*

**Quantum Science and Technology, Volume 4 (2019), 035003**

efficient use of all measurements and its performance scales as the information-theoretic limits for such an estimator. Importantly, it is inherently robust to state preparation and measurement errors. It is not limited to evaluating only a fixed set of possible gates, rather it estimates the complete Hamiltonian of the system. The estimator is applicable to any Hamiltonian that can be written as a piecewise-differentiable function and it can easily include estimators for the non-unitary parameters as well. At the heart of our approach is a stochastic gradient descent over the difference between experimental measurement and model prediction.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 127202 (2019)**

gives superdiffusion, with an effective time-dependent diffusion constant that scales as $D(t) \sim t^{1/3}$. This exponent had previously been observed in large-scale numerical simulations, but had not been theoretically explained. We briefly discuss XXZ models with easy-axis anisotropy $\Delta > 1$. Our method gives closed-form expressions for the diffusion constant $D$ in the infinite-temperature limit for all $\Delta > 1$. We find that $D$ saturates at large anisotropy, and diverges as the Heisenberg limit is approached, as $D \sim (\Delta - 1)^{-1/2}$.

*Philipp T. Dumitrescu, Anna Goremykina, Siddharth A. Parameswaran, Maksym Serbyn, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 99, 094205 (2019)**

we identify the scaling variables as the density of thermal regions and the lengthscale that controls the decay of typical matrix elements. Within this KT picture, the MBL phase is a line of fixed points that terminates at the delocalization transition. We discuss two possible scenarios distinguished by the distribution of rare, fractal thermal inclusions within the MBL phase. In the first scenario, these regions have a stretched exponential distribution in the MBL phase. In the second scenario, the near-critical MBL phase hosts rare thermal regions that are power-law distributed in size. This points to the existence of a second transition within the MBL phase, at which these power-laws change to the stretched exponential form expected at strong disorder. We numerically simulate two different phenomenological RGs previously proposed to describe the MBL transition. Both RGs display a universal power-law length distribution of thermal regions at the transition with a critical exponent $\alpha_c=2$, and continuously varying exponents in the MBL phase consistent with the KT picture.

*Sarang Gopalakrishnan, David A. Huse, Vedika Khemani, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 98, 220303 (2018)**

quasiparticles, so equilibrium density fluctuations cause the front to follow a biased random walk, and therefore to broaden diffusively. Ballistic front propagation and diffusive front broadening are also generically present in non-integrable systems in one dimension; thus, although the mechanisms for operator spreading are distinct in the two cases, these coarse grained measures of the operator front do not distinguish between the two cases. We present an expression for the front-broadening rate; we explicitly derive this for a particular integrable model (the "Floquet-Fredrickson-Andersen" model), and argue on kinetic grounds that it should apply generally. Our results elucidate the microscopic mechanism for diffusive corrections to ballistic transport in interacting integrable models.

*Filip Rozpędek, Raja Yehia, Kenneth Goodenough, Maximilian Ruf, Peter C. Humphreys, Ronald Hanson, Stephanie Wehner, David Elkouss*

**Phys. Rev. A 99, 052330 (2019)**

channel losses have limited the reach of quantum protocols to short distances. Quantum repeaters have the potential to significantly increase the rates and reach beyond the limits of direct transmission. However, no experimental implementation has overcome the direct transmission threshold. Here, we propose three quantum repeater schemes and assess their ability to generate secret key when implemented on a setup using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond with near-term experimental parameters. We find that one of these schemes - the so-called single-photon scheme, requiring no quantum storage - has the ability to surpass the capacity - the highest secret-key rate achievable with direct transmission - by a factor of 7 for a distance of approximately 9.2 km with near-term parameters, establishing it as a prime candidate for the first experimental realization of a quantum repeater.

*William Berdanier, Michael Kolodrubetz, S. A. Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 98, 174203 (2018)**

exemplify its use on the periodically driven interacting quantum Ising model. We analyze the universal physics near the critical lines and multicritical point of this model, and demonstrate the robustness of our results to the inclusion of weak interactions.

*Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter, Yi-Zhuang You, Andreas W. W. Ludwig*

**Phys. Rev. B 100, 134203 (2019)**

entanglement at strong disorder. In the spirit of random matrix theory, we describe a simple model for such transitions where a physical quantum many-body system lives at the "holographic" boundary of a bulk random tensor network. Using a replica trick approach, we map the calculation of the entanglement properties of the boundary system onto the free energy cost of fluctuating domain walls in a classical statistical mechanics model. This allows us to interpret transitions between volume-law and area-law scaling of entanglement as ordering transitions in this statistical mechanics model. Our approach allows us to get an analytic handle on the field theory of these entanglement transitions.

*Anna Goremykina, Romain Vasseur, Maksym Serbyn*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 040601 (2019)**

reflecting the instability of MBL against rare thermal inclusions. We find a critical point that is localized with power-law distributed thermal inclusions. The typical size of critical inclusions remains finite at the transition, while the average size is logarithmically diverging. We propose a two-parameter scaling theory for the many-body localization transition that falls into the Kosterlitz-Thouless universality class, with the MBL phase corresponding to a stable line of fixed points with multifractal behavior.

*Filip Rozpędek, Thomas Schiet, Le Phuc Thinh, David Elkouss, Andrew C. Doherty, Stephanie Wehner*

**Phys. Rev. A 97, 062333 (2018)**

the design of quantum repeater protocols. Here, we present a number of methods to assess and optimize entanglement distillation schemes. We start by giving a numerical method to compute upper bounds on the maximum achievable fidelity for a desired probability of success. We show that this method performs well for many known examples by comparing it to well-known distillation protocols. This allows us to show optimality for many well-known distillation protocols for specific states of interest. As an example, we analytically prove optimality of the distillation protocol utilized within the Extreme Photon Loss (EPL) entanglement generation scheme, even in the asymptotic limit. We proceed to present a numerical method that can improve an existing distillation scheme for a given input state, and we present an example for which this method finds an optimal distillation protocol. An implementation of our numerical methods is available as a Julia package.

*William Berdanier, Michael Kolodrubetz, S. A. Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur*

**PNAS 115 (38) 9491-9496 (2018)**

of Floquet (multi)criticality in terms of a new type of domain wall associated with time-translational symmetry-breaking and the formation of `Floquet time crystals'. We validate our analysis via numerical simulations of free-fermion models sufficient to capture the critical physics.

*S. A. Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur*

**Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 082501 (2018)**

are often washed out. Instead, many-body localized systems can exhibit a type of eigenstate phase structure wherein their entire many-body spectrum is characterized by various types of quantum order, usually restricted to quantum ground states. After introducing many-body localization and explaining how it can protect quantum order, we then explore how the interplay of symmetry and dimensionality with many-body localization constrains its role in stabilizing topological phases out of equilibrium.

*Stefan Krastanov, Victor V. Albert, Liang Jiang*

study of the generated purification circuits, under customizable error models. These new purification protocols pave the way to practical implementations of modular quantum computers and quantum repeaters. Our approach is particularly attentive to the effects of finite resources and imperfect local operations - phenomena neglected in the usual asymptotic approach to the problem. The choice of the building blocks permitted in the construction of the circuits is based on a thorough enumeration of the local Clifford operations that act as permutations on the basis of Bell states.

*Daniel E Parker, Thomas Scaffidi, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 97, 165114 (2018)**

arguments, we show that while the bulks of such gSPT phases are identical to conventional Luttinger liquids, their boundary critical behavior is controlled by a different, strongly-coupled renormalization group fixed point. Our results are checked against extensive density matrix renormalization group calculations.

*James Atwood, Siddharth Pal, Don Towsley, Ananthram Swami*

** 2017-10-26**

that provably reduces memory requirements of DCNNs to O(N) (i.e. linear in the number of nodes in the input) without significantly affecting predictive performance.

*Philipp T. Dumitrescu, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 070602 (2018)**

by a logarithmically slow growth of entanglement and decay of correlations analogous to the dynamics at the many-body delocalization transition. Ultimately, at long time-scales, which diverge exponentially for weak or rapid drives, the system thermalizes to infinite temperature. The slow relaxation enables metastable dynamical phases, exemplified by a "time quasi-crystal" in which spins exhibit persistent oscillations with a distinct quasi-periodic pattern from that of the drive. We show that in contrast with Floquet systems, a high-frequency expansion strictly breaks down above fourth order, and fails to produce an effective static Hamiltonian that would capture the pre-thermal glassy relaxation.

*Aaron J. Friedman, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter, S. A. Parameswaran*

**Phys. Rev. B 98, 064203 (2018)**

find that the model supports two distinct broken-symmetry MBL phases at strong disorder that either break the ${\mathbb{Z}_3}$ clock symmetry or a ${\mathbb{Z}_2}$ chiral symmetry. In a dual formulation, our results indicate the existence of a stable finite-temperature topological phase with MBL-protected parafermionic end zero modes. While we find a thermal symmetry-preserving regime for weak disorder, scaling analysis at strong disorder points to an infinite-randomness critical point between two distinct broken-symmetry MBL phases.

*Stefan Krastanov, Liang Jiang*

**Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 11003 (2017)**

distribution - the sample will be the predicted error for the given syndrome. We present an implementation of such an algorithm that can be applied to any stabilizer code. Testing it on the toric code, it has higher threshold than a number of known decoders thanks to naturally finding the most probable error and accounting for correlations between errors.

*Jonathan Belletête, Azat M. Gainutdinov, Jesper L. Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur, Romain Vasseur*

**J. Phys A: Math. Theor. 50 (2017) 484002**

the concept of braid translation, which is a natural way to close an open spin chain by adding an interaction between the first and last spins using braiding to bring them next to each other. The interaction thus obtained is in general non-local, but has the key feature that it is expressed solely in terms of the algebra for the open spin chain - the ordinary Temperley-Lieb algebra and its blob algebra generalization. This is in contrast with the usual periodic spin chains which involve only local interactions, and are described by the periodic TL algebra. We show that for the Restricted Solid-On-Solid models, which are known to be described by minimal unitary CFTs in the continuum limit, the braid translation in fact does provide the ordinary periodic model starting from the open model with fixed boundary conditions on the two sides of the strip. This statement has a precise mathematical formulation, which is a pull-back map between irreducible modules of, respectively, the blob algebra and the affine TL algebra. We then turn to the same kind of analysis for two models whose continuum limits are Logarithmic CFTs - the alternating gl(1|1) and sl(2|1) spin chains. We find that the result for minimal models does not hold any longer: braid translation of the relevant TL modules does not give rise to the modules known to be present in the periodic chains. In the gl(1|1) case, the content in terms of the irreducibles is the same, as well as the spectrum, but the detailed structure (like logarithmic coupling) is profoundly different. This carries over to the continuum limit.

*Thomas Scaffidi, Daniel E. Parker, Romain Vasseur*

and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry-broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wavefunctions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.

*Filip Rozpędek, Kenneth Goodenough, Jérémy Ribeiro, Norbert Kalb, Valentina Caprara Vivoli, Andreas Reiserer, Ronald Hanson, Stephanie Wehner, David Elkouss*

**F Rozp\k{e}dek et al 2018 Quantum Sci. Technol. 3 034002**

the implementation of so-called quantum repeaters. Here, we assess the performance of a specific but very natural setup called a single sequential repeater for quantum key distribution. We offer a fine-grained assessment of the repeater by introducing a series of benchmarks. The benchmarks, which should be surpassed to claim a working repeater, are based on finite-energy considerations, thermal noise and the losses in the setup. In order to boost the performance of the studied repeaters we introduce two methods. The first one corresponds to the concept of a cut-off, which reduces the effect of decoherence during storage of a quantum state by introducing a maximum storage time. Secondly, we supplement the standard classical post-processing with an advantage distillation procedure. Using these methods, we find realistic parameters for which it is possible to achieve rates greater than each of the benchmarks, guiding the way towards implementing quantum repeaters.

*Vir B. Bulchandani, Romain Vasseur, Christoph Karrasch, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 220604 (2017)**

models by solving a certain kinetic equation, the "Bethe-Boltzmann" equation satisfied by the local pseudo-momentum density. Explicit comparison with density matrix renormalization group time evolution of a thermal expansion in the XXZ model shows that hydrodynamical predictions from smooth initial conditions can be remarkably accurate, even for small system sizes. Solutions are also obtained in the Lieb-Liniger model for free expansion into vacuum and collisions between clouds of particles, which model experiments on ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases.

*Romain Couvreur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Romain Vasseur*

** 2017-04-07**

transform non-trivially under the group of spatial rotations, with a definite conformal spin. The two-point correlation functions are then computed, and their physical interpretation is given in terms of Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters propagating between two neighbourhoods of each N spins. In two dimensions, we obtain analytically the critical exponent corresponding to each operator. In the simplest and physically most relevant cases, we confirm the values of the critical exponent and the conformal spin by numerical measurements, using both Monte Carlo simulations and transfer matrix diagonalisations. Our classification partially provides the structure of Jordan cells of the dilatation operator in arbitrary dimensions, which in turn gives rise to logarithmic correlation functions.

*Romain Vasseur, Arash Roshani, Stephan Haas, Hubert Saleur*

Healing in the random case occurs even without interactions, and is characteristic of the random singlet phase. Using real space renormalization group and exact diagonalization methods, we characterize this universal healing crossover by studying the entanglement across the weak link. We identify a crossover healing length $L^*$ that separates a regime where the system is cut in half by the weak link from a fixed point where the spin chain is healed. Our results open the way to the study of impurity physics in disordered spin chains.

*Daniel E. Parker, Romain Vasseur, Joel E. Moore*

**Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Volume 50, Number 25 (2017)**

to be expressed in terms of geometrical and topological quantities. Here we extend this result to excited states and find that the entanglement can be naturally written in terms of quantities which we dub "entanglement propagator amplitudes" (EPAs). EPAs are geometrical probabilities that we explicitly calculate and interpret. A comparison of lattice and continuum results demonstrates that EPAs are universal. This work shows that the QLM is an example of a 2+1d field theory where the universal behavior of excited-state entanglement may be computed analytically.

*Vir B. Bulchandani, Romain Vasseur, Christoph Karrasch, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. B 97, 045407 (2018)**

theory and extend the previous works by proposing a numerical scheme to solve the hydrodynamic equations for finite times and arbitrary locally equilibrated initial conditions. We then discuss how such methods can be applied to describe non-equilibrium steady states involving ballistic heat and spin currents. In particular, we show that the spin Drude weight in the XXZ chain, previously accessible only by rigorous techniques of limited scope or controversial thermodynamic Bethe ansatz arguments, may be evaluated from hydrodynamics in very good agreement with density-matrix renormalization group calculations.

*Suzanne B. van Dam, Peter C. Humphreys, Filip Rozpędek, Stephanie Wehner, Ronald Hanson*

** 2017-02-16**

its performance. We model achievable entangling rates based on the anticipated near-term performance of nitrogen-vacancy centres and other promising network platforms. This analysis allows us to compare the potential of the proposed multiplexed protocols in different regimes. Moreover, by identifying the gains that may be achieved by improving particular network parameters, our analysis suggests the most promising avenues for research and development of prototype quantum networks.

*Romain Vasseur, Hubert Saleur*

universal cross-over formula $S=F(tT_K)$, where $T_K$ is the crossover (Kondo) temperature: the function $F$ describes the dynamical "healing" of the system at large times. We discuss how to obtain analytic information about $F$ in the case of an integrable quantum impurity problem using the massless Form-Factors formalism for twist and boundary condition changing operators. Our results are confirmed by density matrix renormalization group calculations and exact free fermion numerics.

*William Berdanier, Michael Kolodrubetz, Romain Vasseur, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 260602 (2017)**

exact numerics on the transverse field Ising model, and demonstrate universality by adding non-integrable perturbations. The dynamics naturally separate into three regimes: a slow-driving limit, which has an interpretation as multiple quantum quenches with amplitude corrections from CFT; a fast-driving limit, in which the system behaves as though subject to a single quantum quench; and a crossover regime displaying heating. The universal Floquet dynamics in all regimes can be understood using a combination of boundary CFT and Kibble-Zurek scaling arguments.

*Philipp T. Dumitrescu, Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 110604 (2017)**

correlation length, the average entanglement follows a sub-thermal volume law, whose coefficient is a universal scaling function. Furthermore, the full distribution of entanglement follows a universal scaling form, and exhibits a bimodal structure that produces universal subleading power-law corrections to the leading volume-law. For systems larger than the correlation length, the short interval entanglement exhibits a discontinuous jump across the transition from fully thermal volume-law on the thermal side, to a pure area-law on the MBL side.

*Chao Shen, Kyungjoo Noh, Victor V. Albert, Stefan Krastanov, Michel H. Devoret, Robert J. Schoelkopf, S. M. Girvin, Liang Jiang*

**Phys. Rev. B 95, 134501 (2017)**

superconducting circuits and various other physical platforms. There are many applications of quantum channel construction, including system stabilization and quantum error correction, Markovian and exotic channel simulation, implementation of generalized quantum measurements and more general quantum instruments. Efficient construction of arbitrary quantum channels opens up exciting new possibilities for quantum control, quantum sensing and information processing tasks.

*S. A. Parameswaran, Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur*

**Annalen der Physik , 1600302 (2017)**

phases.

*Byungmin Kang, Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 95, 024205 (2017)**

techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.

*Filip Rozpędek, Jędrzej Kaniewski, Patrick J. Coles, Stephanie Wehner*

critically examine the concept of preparation uncertainty and ask whether similarly in the quantum regime, some of the uncertainty that we observe can actually also be understood as a lack of information (LOI), albeit a lack of quantum information. We answer this question affirmatively by showing that for the well known measurements employed in BB84 quantum key distribution, the amount of uncertainty can indeed be related to the amount of available information about additional registers determining the choice of the measurement. We proceed to show that also for other measurements the amount of uncertainty is in part connected to a LOI. Finally, we discuss the conceptual implications of our observation to the security of cryptographic protocols that make use of BB84 states.

*Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 94, 224206 (2016)**

alternative fates of non-equilibrium dynamics in isolated, strongly disordered quantum systems. Our results rule out the existence of MBL symmetry protected topological phases with non-Abelian symmetry groups, as well as time-reversal symmetry protected electronic topological insulators, and in fact all fermion topological insulators and superconductors in the 10-fold way classification. Moreover, extending our arguments to systems with intrinsic topological order, we rule out MBL phases with non-Abelian anyons as well as certain classes of symmetry enriched topological orders.

*Romain Vasseur, Joel E. Moore*

is on universal dynamics, non-equilibrium steady states and new dynamical phases of matter, and on phase transitions far from thermal equilibrium. We describe how the infinite number of conservation laws of integrable and many-body localized systems lead to complex non-equilibrium states beyond the traditional dogma of statistical mechanics.

*Romain Vasseur, Aaron J. Friedman, S. A. Parameswaran, Andrew C. Potter*

**Phys. Rev. B 93, 134207 (2016)**

are an irrelevant perturbation in the ground state, they drastically affect the structure of excited states: even arbitrarily weak interactions split the degeneracies in favor of thermalization (weak disorder) or spontaneously broken particle-hole symmetry, driving the system into a many-body localized spin glass phase (strong disorder). In both cases, the quantum critical properties of the non-interacting model are destroyed, either by thermal decoherence or spontaneous symmetry breaking. This system then has the interesting and counterintuitive property that edges of the many-body spectrum are less localized than the center of the spectrum. We argue that our results rule out the existence of certain excited state symmetry-protected topological orders.

*Romain Vasseur, Christoph Karrasch, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 267201 (2015)**

nearest-neighbor interactions (XXZ spin chain), energy current in Lorentz-invariant theories or particle current in interacting Bose gases in arbitrary dimension. Even far from equilibrium, these rates are controlled by state functions, which we call ``expansion potentials'', expressed as integrals of equilibrium Drude weights. This relation between nonequilibrium quantities and linear response implies non-equilibrium Maxwell relations for the Drude weights. We verify our results via DMRG calculations for the XXZ chain.

*Romain Vasseur, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. B 92, 054203 (2015)**

thermodynamic limit. We analyze this Anderson orthogonality catastrophe in detail using a real-space renormalization group approach. We show that both the typical value of the overlap G and the disorder average of $G^\alpha$ with $\alpha>0$ decay as power-laws of the system size. In particular, the disorder average of $G^\alpha$ shows a "multifractal" behavior, with a non-trivial limit $\alpha \to \infty$ that is dominated by rare events. We also discuss the case of more generic local perturbations and generalize these results to local quantum quenches.

*Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 92, 014205 (2015)**

these quantum critical points, we show here how to construct non-perturbatively disorder-averaged observables in terms of Green's functions that scale logarithmically at criticality. In the case of the spin quantum Hall transition, which may occur in disordered superconductors with spin-rotation symmetry and broken time reversal invariance, we argue that our results are compatible with an alternative approach based on supersymmetry. The generalization to the Integer quantum Hall plateau transition is also discussed.

*Reinier W. Heeres, Brian Vlastakis, Eric Holland, Stefan Krastanov, Victor V. Albert, Luigi Frunzio, Liang Jiang, Robert J. Schoelkopf*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 137002 (2015)**

introduce the Selective Number-dependent Arbitrary Phase (SNAP) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the SNAP gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the SNAP gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits.

*Victor V. Albert, Chi Shu, Stefan Krastanov, Chao Shen, Ren-Bao Liu, Zhen-Biao Yang, Robert J. Schoelkopf, Mazyar Mirrahimi, Michel H. Devoret, Liang Jiang*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 140502 (2016)**

that state and the other states. The second gate consists of "colliding" two coherent states of the same oscillator, resulting in coherent population transfer between them. The third gate is an effective controlled-phase gate on coherent states of two different oscillators. Such gates should be realizable via reservoir engineering of systems which support tunable nonlinearities, such as trapped ions and circuit QED.

*Stefan Krastanov, Victor V. Albert, Chao Shen, Chang-Ling Zou, Reinier W. Heeres, Brian Vlastakis, Robert J. Schoelkopf, Liang Jiang*

**Phys. Rev. A 92, 040303(R) (2015)**

we provide explicit constructions for arbitrary state preparation and arbitrary unitary operation of the oscillator. Moreover, we present an efficient procedure to prepare the number state $\left|n\right\rangle$ using only $O\left(\sqrt{n}\right)$ operations. We also compare our scheme with known quantum control protocols for coupled qubit-oscillator systems. This universal control scheme of the oscillator can readily be implemented using superconducting circuits.

*Andrew C. Potter, Romain Vasseur, S. A. Parameswaran*

such quantum-to-classical transitions and compute their universal critical properties. Notably, the classical thermal liquid exhibits a broad regime of anomalously slow sub-diffusive equilibration dynamics and energy transport. The subdiffusive regime is characterized by a continuously evolving dynamical critical exponent that diverges with a universal power at the transition. Our approach elucidates the universal long-distance, low-energy scaling structure of many-body delocalization transitions in one dimension, in a way that is transparently connected to the underlying microscopic physics.

*Sergei L. Lukyanov, Hubert Saleur, Jesper L. Jacobsen, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 080601 (2015)**

finite overlap in the thermodynamic limit. This overlap, which plays an important role in quantum quenches for impurity systems, is a universal function of the ratio of the corresponding Kondo temperatures, which is not accessible using perturbation theory nor the Bethe ansatz. Using a strategy based on the integrable structure of the corresponding quantum field theory, we propose an exact formula for this overlap, which we check against extensive density matrix renormalization group calculations.

*Romain Vasseur, Andrew C. Potter, S. A. Parameswaran*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 217201 (2015)**

examples. Highly excited eigenstates of these systems exhibit properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states, leading us to dub them "quantum critical glasses". We argue that random-bond Heisenberg chains self-thermalize and that the excited-state entanglement crosses over from volume-law to logarithmic scaling at a length scale that diverges in the Heisenberg limit $k\rightarrow\infty$. The excited state fixed points are generically distinct from their ground state counterparts, and represent novel non-equilibrium critical phases of matter.

*R. Vasseur, S. A. Parameswaran, J. E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. B 91, 140202 (2015)**

a time scale corresponding to the onset of the dephasing that distinguishes many-body localized phases from Anderson insulators. In contrast, the ergodic phase acts as a bath for the qubit, with no revivals visible on the time scales studied. The suppression of quantum revivals of local observables provides a quantitative, experimentally observable alternative to entanglement growth as a measure of the `non-ergodic but dephasing' nature of many-body localized systems.

*R. Vasseur, J. P. Dahlhaus, J. E. Moore*

decaying overlap (Loschmidt echo) ${\cal L}(t)=| < \psi(0) | \psi(t) > |^2\sim t^{-\alpha}$ for large times after the quench, with a universal critical exponent $\alpha$=1/4 that is found to be remarkably robust against details of the setup, such as interactions in the normal lead, the existence of additional lead channels or the presence of bound levels between the lead and the superconductor. As in recent quantum dot experiments, this exponent could be measured by optical absorption, offering a new signature of Majorana zero modes that is distinct from interferometry and tunneling spectroscopy.

*Romain Vasseur, Joel E. Moore*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 146804 (2014)**

(Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot which is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the Quantum Spin Hall edge.

*Romain Vasseur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen*

**Nucl. Phys. B 880, 435--475 (2014)**

subleading counterparts. We give the explicit form of all these operators -- up to non-universal constants -- both on the lattice and in the continuum limit for the Landau theory. We compute exactly their two- and three-point correlation functions on an arbitrary graph in terms of simple probabilities, and give the general form of these correlation functions in the continuum limit at the critical point. Specializing to integer values of the parameter $Q$, we argue that the analytic continuation of the $S_Q$ symmetry yields logarithmic correlations at the critical point in arbitrary dimension, thus implying a mixing of some scaling fields by the scale transformation generator. All these logarithmic correlation functions are given a clear geometrical meaning, which can be checked in numerical simulations. Several physical examples are discussed, including bond percolation, spanning trees and forests, resistor networks and the Ising model. We also briefly address the generalization of our approach to the $O(n)$ model.

*Romain Vasseur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 106601 (2014)**

of the entanglement in this crossover has led to many numerical studies, but has remained little understood, analytically or even qualitatively. We argue in this Letter that the correct universal scaling form of the entanglement entropy $S$ (for an arbitrary interval of length $L$ containing the impurity) is $\partial S/\partial \ln L = f(L T_B)$. In the special case where the coupling to the impurity can be refermionized, we show how the universal function $f(L T_B)$ can be obtained analytically using recent results on form factors of twist fields and a defect massless-scattering formalism. Our results are carefully checked against numerical simulations.

*Mickaël Melzani, Christophe Winisdoerffer, Rolf Walder, Doris Folini, Jean M. Favre, Stefan Krastanov, Peter Messmer*

of the filamentation instability, and non-linear filamentation merging phase. For the filamentation instability we show that the effective growth rates measured on the total energy can differ by more than 50% from the linear cold predictions and from the fastest modes of the simulation. Second, we detail a new method for initial loading of Maxwell-J\"uttner particle distributions with relativistic bulk velocity and relativistic temperature, and explain why the traditional method with individual particle boosting fails. Third, we scrutinize the question of what description of physical plasmas is obtained by PIC models. These models rely on two building blocks: coarse-graining, i.e., grouping of the order of p~10^10 real particles into a single computer superparticle, and field storage on a grid with its subsequent finite superparticle size. We introduce the notion of coarse-graining dependent quantities, i.e., quantities depending on p. They derive from the PIC plasma parameter Lambda^{PIC}, which we show to scale as 1/p. We explore two implications. One is that PIC collision- and fluctuation-induced thermalization times are expected to scale with the number of superparticles per grid cell, and thus to be a factor p~10^10 smaller than in real plasmas. The other is that the level of electric field fluctuations scales as 1/Lambda^{PIC} ~ p. We provide a corresponding exact expression. Fourth, we compare the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, which describes a phase-space fluid with infinite Lambda, to the PIC model and its relatively small Lambda.

*Hubert Saleur, Peter Schmitteckert, Romain Vasseur*

**Phys. Rev. B 88, 085413 (2013)**

weak and strong coupling regimes. While the impurity contribution to the entanglement has been computed numerically in the past, little is known analytically about it, since in particular the methods of conformal invariance cannot be applied because of the presence of a crossover length. We show in this paper that the small coupling expansion of the entanglement entropy in this problem is quite generally plagued by strong infrared divergences, implying a non-perturbative dependence on the coupling. The large coupling expansion turns out to be better behaved, thanks to powerful results from the boundary CFT formulation and, in some cases, the underlying integrability of the problem. However, it is clear that this expansion does not capture well the crossover physics. In the integrable case -- which includes problems such as an XXZ chain with a modified link, the interacting resonant level model or the anisotropic Kondo model -- a non perturbative approach is in principle possible using form-factors. We adapt in this paper the ideas of [1,2] to the gapless case and show that, in the rather simple case of the resonant level model, and after some additional renormalizations, the form factors approach yields remarkably accurate results for the entanglement all the way from short to large distances. This is confirmed by detailed comparison with numerical simulations. Both our form factor and numerical results are compatible with a non-perturbative form at short distance.

*Romain Vasseur, Kien Trinh, Stephan Haas, Hubert Saleur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 240601 (2013)**

Loschmidt echo and the distribution of the work done during the quantum quench. Our results display an interesting crossover physics characterized by the energy scale T_b of the impurity corresponding to the Kondo temperature. We discuss in detail the non-interacting case as a paradigm and benchmark for more complicated integrable impurity models, and check our results using numerical methods.

*Azat M. Gainutdinov, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur, Romain Vasseur*

**Nuclear Physics B 873 (3), 614--681 (2013)**

phenomena. We extend in this paper the construction of Read and Saleur (2007), and uncover a deep relationship between the Virasoro algebra and a finite-dimensional algebra characterizing the properties of two-dimensional statistical models, the so-called blob algebra (a proper extension of the Temperley--Lieb algebra). This allows us to explore vast classes of Virasoro representations (projective, tilting, generalized staggered modules, etc.), and to conjecture a classification of all possible indecomposable Virasoro modules (with, in particular, L_0 Jordan cells of arbitrary rank) that may appear in a consistent physical Logarithmic CFT where Virasoro is the maximal local chiral algebra. As by-products, we solve and analyze algebraically quantum-group symmetric XXZ spin chains and sl(2|1) supersymmetric spin chains with extra spins at the boundary, together with the "mirror" spin chain introduced by Martin and Woodcock (2004).

*R. Vasseur, D. Xue, Y. Zhou, W. Ettoumi, X. Ding, X. Ren, T. Lookman*

**Phys. Rev. B 86, 184103 (2012)**

a spin model and analytically obtaining the phase diagram using real-space renormalization group methods. We further predict a spontaneous transition from the glass state to the ordered martensite phase. We verify this prediction by mapping out the experimental phase diagram for the ternary ferroelastic alloy Ti$_{50}$(Pd$_{50-x}$Cr$_x$) and demonstrate the emergence of the spontaneous transition. Our work thus provides a consistent framework to understand the various experimental and theoretical studies on the glassy behavior associated with ferroelastic materials.

*Romain Vasseur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur*

the underlying S_Q symmetry of the Potts spins, we identify a class of simple observables whose two-point functions scale logarithmically for Q = 1. The logarithm originates from the mixing of the energy operator with a logarithmic partner that we identify as the field that creates two propagating clusters. In d=2 dimensions this agrees with general LCFT results, and in particular the universal prefactor of the logarithm can be computed exactly. We confirm its numerical value by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.

*A. M. Gainutdinov, R. Vasseur*

**Nucl. Phys. B 868, 223-270 (2013)**

of the corresponding finite-dimensional associative algebras exactly mimics the Virasoro indecomposable modules expected to arise in the continuum limit. In this paper, we study in detail the so-called Temperley-Lieb (TL) fusion functor introduced in physics by Read and Saleur [Nucl. Phys. B 777, 316 (2007)]. Using quantum group results, we provide rigorous calculations of the fusion of various TL modules. Our results are illustrated by many explicit examples relevant for physics. We discuss how indecomposability arises in the "lattice" fusion and compare the mechanisms involved with similar observations in the corresponding field theory. We also discuss the physical meaning of our lattice fusion rules in terms of indecomposable operator-product expansions of quantum fields.

*Romain Vasseur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen*

promoted to the same level of generality. In this paper we show how to define the Potts model in terms of observables that simultaneously keep track of the spin and FK degrees of freedom. This is first done algebraically in terms of a transfer matrix that couples three different representations of a partition algebra. Using this, one can study correlation functions involving any given number of propagating spin clusters with prescribed colours, each of which contains any given number of distinct FK clusters. For 0 <= Q <= 4 the corresponding critical exponents are all of the Kac form h_{r,s}, with integer indices r,s that we determine exactly both in the bulk and in the boundary versions of the problem. In particular, we find that the set of points where an FK cluster touches the hull of its surrounding spin cluster has fractal dimension d_{2,1} = 2 - 2 h_{2,1}. If one constrains this set to points where the neighbouring spin cluster extends to infinity, we show that the dimension becomes d_{1,3} = 2 - 2 h_{1,3}. Our results are supported by extensive transfer matrix and Monte Carlo computations.

*Romain Vasseur, Azat M. Gainutdinov, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur*

**Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 161602 (2012)**

B 546, 765 (1999)], and which was first thought to play the role of an "effective" central charge. The value of b has been determined over the last few years for the boundary versions of these models: $b_{\rm perco}=-5/8$ for percolation and $b_{\rm poly} = 5/6$ for dilute polymers. Meanwhile, the existence and value of $b$ for the bulk theory has remained an open problem. Using lattice regularization techniques we provide here an "experimental study" of this question. We show that, while the chiral stress tensor has indeed a single logarithmic partner in the chiral sector of the theory, the value of b is not the expected one: instead, b=-5 for both theories. We suggest a theoretical explanation of this result using operator product expansions and Coulomb gas arguments, and discuss the physical consequences on correlation functions. Our results imply that the relation between bulk LCFTs of physical interest and their boundary counterparts is considerably more involved than in the non-logarithmic case.

*Romain Vasseur, Jesper Lykke Jacobsen, Hubert Saleur*

of indecomposable Virasoro modules and to obtain fusion rules for a variety of models such as (boundary) percolation etc. LCFTs allow for additional quantum numbers describing the fine structure of the indecomposable modules, and generalizing the `b-number' introduced initially by Gurarie for the c=0 case. The determination of these indecomposability parameters has given rise to a lot of algebraic work, but their physical meaning has remained somewhat elusive. In a recent paper, a way to measure b for boundary percolation and polymers was proposed. We generalize this work here by devising a general strategy to compute matrix elements of Virasoro generators from the numerical analysis of lattice models and their continuum limit. The method is applied to XXZ spin-1/2 and spin-1 chains with open (free) boundary conditions. They are related to gl(n+m|m) and osp(n+2m|2m)-invariant superspin chains and to nonlinear sigma models with supercoset target spaces. These models can also be formulated in terms of dense and dilute loop gas. We check the method in many cases where the results were already known analytically. Furthermore, we also confront our findings with a construction generalizing Gurarie's, where logarithms emerge naturally in operator product expansions to compensate for apparently divergent terms. This argument actually allows us to compute indecomposability parameters in any logarithmic theory. A central result of our study is the construction of a Kac table for the indecomposability parameters of the logarithmic minimal models LM(1,p) and LM(p,p+1).

*Romain Vasseur, Turab Lookman, Subodh R. Shenoy*

**Phys. Rev. B 82, 094118 (2010)**

zero-strain 'austenite' minimum at high temperatures, and spontaneous-strain 'martensite' minima of $N_V$ structural variants at low temperatures. In a reduced description, the strains at Landau minima induce temperature-dependent, clock-like $\mathbb{Z}_{N_V +1}$ hamiltonians, with $N_{OP}$-component strain-pseudospin vectors ${\vec S}$ pointing to $N_V + 1$ discrete values (including zero). We study elastic texturing in five such first-order structural transitions through a local meanfield approximation of their pseudospin hamiltonians, that include the powerlaw interactions. As a prototype, we consider the two-variant square/rectangle transition, with a one-component, pseudospin taking $N_V +1 =3$ values of $S= 0, \pm 1$, as in a generalized Blume-Capel model. We then consider transitions with two-component ($N_{OP} = 2$) pseudospins: the equilateral to centred-rectangle ($N_V =3$); the square to oblique polygon ($N_V =4$); the triangle to oblique ($N_V =6$) transitions; and finally the 3D cubic to tetragonal transition ($ N_V =3$). The local meanfield solutions in 2D and 3D yield oriented domain-walls patterns as from continuous-variable strain dynamics, showing the discrete-variable models capture the essential ferroelastic texturings. Other related hamiltonians illustrate that structural-transitions in materials science can be the source of interesting spin models in statistical mechanics.