This is an assortment of topics in Quantum Information Science. Whether you need deep knowledge in some of them depends on the subfield you are heading for. However, over the first year as a graduate student you would need to build at least a superficial understanding of most of these topics.
Be careful when searching online for some of the suggested textbooks. You probably would stumble upon repositories like Library Genesis that have the entire PDF files, but using them would be an illegal act of piracy.
These are common suggestions for an overview:
These are the differential equations describing a piece of quantum hardware.
QuTiP's documentation covers a lot of techniques
QuantumOptics.jlis a similarly good resource
Quantum Measurement Theory and its Application is great for in-depth study of measurement modeling
Quantum Optics - there are a few standard books on the topic (and good alternative suggestions online)
Modern Quantum Mechanics by Sakurai and Napolitano is a great textbook on Quantum Mechanics from a physics perspective
A few models that you will probably encounter:
Jaynes–Cummings coupling of an atom to a cavity
Dispersive coupling of a transmon to a cavity
Acousto-optic parametric coupling between mechanical displacement and optical wavelength
The 3-level model of a color center (with selective optical transition)
The collective motion of trapped ions
Common noise models:
decay and dephasing times for two-level systems
Amplitude damping and dephasing for oscillators
Common techniques for modeling the noise:
Clifford circuits are a restricted class of circuits that do not provide a quantum computational advantage, but they are important for error correction and easy to simulate on a classical computer. The
QuantumClifford.jl documentation has a good list of reading materials.
Make sure you have at least a vague understanding of the Knill-Laflamme condition.
Much of the Clifford circuits reading list is applicable to the topic of qubit error correcting codes, but be sure that you first learn about classical binary linear codes and what the check matrix and generator matrix are.
For resilient encoding of information in quantum harmonic oscillators we use "bosonic" error correcting codes. Most important would be the GKP, cat, and binomial codes.
Similarly to Clifford circuits, Gaussian quantum optics does not provide computational advantage and is easy to simulate on a classical computer, but it is an important building block of quantum hardware. Gaussian Quantum Information in Rev. Mod. Phys. is a good overview.